The surprising neuroscience of gender inequality | Janet Crawford | TEDxSanDiego

The surprising neuroscience of gender inequality | Janet Crawford | TEDxSanDiego

Translator: Noppakao “Angel” Leelasorn
Reviewer: Elisabeth Buffard Wow, look at you all! So I was waiting for my flight 2 days ago at San Francisco International Airport and sitting directly across from me was a young attractive woman. She wore heavy makeup
and she had long, lacquered nails and a skimpy top that was
riding up just enough to reveal a pretty, gaudy belly piercing. So I had a shock of surprise
when she stood up to board her flight and I thought the title of the book that
she had been engrossed in all this time: “Fundamentals of Angel Investing” So this was deliciously ironic for me
because my topic is “bias”. I graduated with a science degree
from UC Berkeley in 1984. And it was hard
studying science at Berkeley and it wasn’t just because of the content I was the target of frequent,
undeniable, in-my-face sexism. But this was also a time of celebration
and optimism for women We were the first generation in history where female college graduates
outnumbered males. We were flooding into the marketplace
at unprecedented numbers and into fields where before
we had little to no representation. And we naively thought
that our generation would be the one to make
gender inequity a thing of the past. But here we are, it’s 30 years later and the conversation
remains much the same Young female scientists tell me stories that are heartbreakingly similar
to those early experiences: we still have a substantial pay gap and shockingly few women at the top. Only 5% of Fortune 500 CEOs are women
and 18% of congress. Oddly, we are 51% of the population, yet occupy only 15% of
lead roles in movies. And my world, Silicon Valley,
is one of the few places where you might encounter this scene, at a major conference
during the bathroom break. (Laughter) So, as a woman, I find it disheartening and angering, and really frankly boring
to still be on this conversation. And I imagine as a man, it gets old having a finger always
pointing back at you. The tolerance for this conversation
is wearing thin. And this is nowhere more evident
than in the insult-laden, often vulgar and sometimes violent comment streams
accompanying any online discussion of a gender-related issue. But these conversations leave out a powerful and invisible
actor in our story. All of us, male and female,
are unconsciously gender-biased. And these biases lead well-meaning
men and women to do things that perpetuate the status quo
without our ever knowing it. So in telling this society, we can get
our arms around this phenomenon, we are unwitting accomplices in the perpetuation
of inequity and discrimination. So let’s take a look
at the brain processes that drive by us, how it shows up, and most importantly whether there are
some things that we can do about it. Most people think that
they move through their day making their decisions with a conscious
and rational process of deliberation. And by this logic, it’s difficult
to do something that’s out of keeping with your values
without knowing that you’ve done so. But actually conscious
decision-making represents a tiny, tiny fraction of
what goes on in your brain. You couldn’t possibly take in
the oncoming barrage of information, moment to moment, process it and formulate a response to it with this part of the brain alone.
It needs help. And what it calls on is a vast reservoir of unconsciously stored associations. You see, as you move through your day, outside of your awareness, your brain is always scanning
for repeating patterns. And when it finds them, it stores them as the way things are or ought to be. But the problem with this process, which actually works well
most of the time, is that your brain is also not
differentiating around the utility or the fairness, or the accuracy
of what the environment is serving up. If it’s associated out there, it’s likely
to become associated in here. And it is these associations that we use
to make meaning of the world into formulate our response to it. Now, we can measure unconscious
associations quite easily with an elegant and simple instrument
called the Implicit Association Test. Quite simply, for gender, all it does
is ask you to associate certain words with the image of a man or a woman. And when those requested associations match your unconscious associations, you’re going to be able to do these tasks
more quickly and with fewer errors. So most people in the population,
as it turns out, male or female, regardless of political orientation, have an easier time
associating words like “leader”, “strong”, “protective”
toward men, and “nurturing”, “emotional”
and “fragile” toward women. 16 million people have taken
the Implicit Association Tests to date and the results are clear: if you grew up here in the US, or for
that matter, most parts of the world, you likely have a significant
degree of gender bias. Okay, so where did those biases come from? I mean, where are all these
associations hanging out? Well, just do a search on the internet
for any profession and add the modifier
“male” or “female” in front of it and see what comes up. In this case, the search was on
female executive and as strange as the second image is,
(Laughter) the most troubling one for me personally
at my age is the last one because the subheading is
“Aged female executive” (Laughter) It comes from the things we were seeing
from social media, in this case, a recommendation of the top minds and
big ideas that I should be following. There are 22 images and only
two of them are female. It shows up in the notoriously
lopsided gender ratios at professional conferences. And even the backgrounds tell a story. It also shows up in headlines. In this case, Fortune magazine
felt it necessary to reassure us that Marissa Mayer is the real deal. Because as a blonde,
attractive, young woman, we might assume she wasn’t. So media is not benign, because it is this sort of imagery that our brains use unconsciously in our calculations of who belongs where and what competence looks like. A Yale University study looked at bias in the hiring for the traditionally
male role of police chief. And in this study, purportedly
gender-blind participants were asked to review two applications. Now, when no names were attached,
they overwhelmingly preferred the application that had more education. But when a male or female
name was attached, they overwhelmingly preferred
the application with a male name. This sort of result has been replicated
in numerous other academic studies. But these unconscious biases
don’t just cause discrimination, they also influence our life choices. A University of Washington study recently
looked at the effect of classroom decor on the choice of academic discipline. So researchers decorated two classrooms, one of them had kind of traditionally
nerdy, male paraphernalia in it, like Star Trek posters and
comic books and video games. And the other one had neutral objects, like coffee cups, plants and art posters. What they found was that female
college students who spent time in this traditionally nerdy classroom
exhibited a markedly lower preference for computer science as a field than the females who spent time
in the neutral room. But for males, it made
no difference whatsoever. When you really look, this kind of bias
shows up everywhere. It’s in what we choose to share with whom
and whose opinion we seek. It infects our assumption about
who should do domestic chores and who deserves the praise for doing so.
(Laughter) It shows up… yeah, (Laughs) it shows up, for that lone female
on a technology team when her recommendations are
disproportionately overlooked or second-guessed, but
she can’t say anything about this. And the phenomenon will likely remain
invisible to her male colleagues. Why? Because to do so is
potentially career limiting. It marks her out as “that woman”. You know, the one that
plays the gender card. So it shows up everywhere. It shows up in our
definitions of leadership, and when vulnerability,
and sharing credit are seen as weak, and when taking up space and personal
ambition are seen as strong. Gender equity is not a woman’s issue. We need women to fully participate
in the conversations that shape the future of the world. But it’s not just women who benefit,
men benefit too. Because when we associate
masculinity with money, muscles, domination and aggression,
we dishonor legions of good men who do not embody these characteristics. No piece of legislation or mandatory
sexual harassment training or quota will get rid of unconscious bias. These things are neccessary. But when we focus only on
overt sexism, we miss the point and worse yet, we allow
ourselves to point our finger at a hypothetical bad guy out there. But when we allow ourselves
to understand that we’re biased too, we’re able to transform this conversation from one of blame and shame
to one of committed action. Believing in gender equity is not enough. We are the creators and the consumers of the environments that drive by us. So what can we do about it? There’s actually a fairly simple solution, and that is to commit yourself to becoming a good observer of your environment. Make it a daily practice,
and if you need to remind yourself. In fact, you might even
notice something today as a result of the last 10 minutes
we’ve spent together. But if you do, don’t judge it,
because we all do it. Don’t judge it, engage with other people. Get curious, and use it
to fuel an exploration. When you see bias,
or the environments that drive it, say something, talk about it, and where you can, change it. And this is for the men in the audience. Women can’t and shouldn’t take
this one on by ourselves. We need you to pick up
the mantle alongside us. So let’s help each other. Let’s help each other change
these limiting narratives of what it means to be a man or a woman. Because nobody here
is to blame for this problem, but we are all, together,
responsible for a solution. Thank you.
(Applause) (Applause)

Author: Kennedi Daugherty

100 thoughts on “The surprising neuroscience of gender inequality | Janet Crawford | TEDxSanDiego

  1. I was born in Soviet Union, where women "were equal to men" they were "Men in skirts" and they were expected to work just as hard as men; hauling iron ore, chopping wood, tilling ground, inhaling deadly chimicals in labs, you name it women did it. Any and all jobs were EQUAL & no one cared if they were pregnant, breastfeeding or on your period. Soviet women became sick, barren and angry at the world… and the government covered up all the stats… the population dwindled (and is still droping)… and then, soviet empire unraveled and fell apart – thank God! Now I'm going to go hugg my husband for working like a man, so I can be a mom to our kids at home!

  2. This sounded like an interesting topic, unfortunately, it did not turn out to be about the surprising neuroscience of gender inequality. Our speaker, Janet Crawford, does touch on neuroscience a bit when she explains that we all cope with the influx of data by using rafts of associations. So, if two concepts have a strong association in the world that we observe then they will very likely have a similar association in our minds. This will be true even if the observed association was in an artificial social construct.

    The rest of what she had to say was apparently the musings of a gender prejudiced ideologue whose field of study may ironically include bias when she cannot seem to recognize her own. Whenever anything which might not be leading to equitable outcomes for women is mentioned it does not lead to any examination of why that is the case, it just moves directly to the conclusion that it is something that must be changed. When something is brought up where men are receiving an inequitable outcome there is still no examination of why that is so, but this time the reaction is rejoicing an achievement. The achievement being that women were doing better than men in that regard.

    I really am sorry for whatever it was that happened to her that left her so bitter and unhappy. It must be horrible to view the whole of society as a competition between men and women with the two basic genders locked in a zero-sum game of domination. I do not think this avenue of research can be very good for her, nor do I think that it does this field of research much good to have her speak in public about it.

  3. Unbeliveable how a person like her can talk about priviledge… I would be so embarassed if i was in her shoes

  4. Hillary Clinton is far more qualified than Donald Trump is. Yet, he won. People aussumed just because he's a guy he's a better leader.

  5. Here's a bias…on average, men are more interested in things and women are more interested in people. These differences in interest have more to do with the careers that people choose more than anything else. Even with an environment of perfectly equitable opportunities…that means that if we achieve the Nirvana where nobody is ever selected for, or rejected from, an opportunity on the basis of their gender…the distributions of men and women in many fields will never be equal simply due to the fact that men and women are interested in different things.

  6. I did not hear much neuroscience. I also did not hear anything about how men and women simply prefer different things on average. She went to the old saw about CEOs and the like. She did get some things right, though. But she still missed the boat big time.

  7. Men have smarter brains/fysiologi/ biologically – though not said a woman can't be smart.. But she clearly have a different brain, with different intrest otherwise top companies would hire more girls.. They want to hire the best – most of on top companies hire through application – guys are more nerdy into system, and logic that has to do with machines, math, physics.. Women are more into humans, relationship etc! Its as simple as that..

  8. When the "pay gap" finally closes and women are making more, will they still be wanting equality? I wonder…

  9. I wish the speaker would have gone into a little more depth on the study with the two rooms: the stereotypically nerdy one and the neutral one. Men's interests apparently were unaffected by the environment, but the women's were. Is this bias? Is it something inherent in how men and women see things due to biology differences? There was some deeper insight that could have been gleamed from that but she didn't mention it. One could infer that the problem women run into in science and technology fields is environmental, not due to how they are treated – basically "I'd enjoy lab stuff more if there wasn't all that lab stuff in the lab…"

  10. Just because u guess on a mens picture while thinking of the word and meaning of Protection, that doesnt mean women cant protect and also doesnt mean that u should expect every man to be protective by nature. The physical and psycological differences between men and women just favor the majority of their kind for some "tasks" and "positions". I know a lot of women telling me they made only bad experiences from female Bosses. That doesnt mean women are bad in leading positions in general! But in the EU for example the big concerns were forced to raise female leading positions to 25% overall to lower the gap. So now even with equal or better qualification the woman will get the job and thats why i dont think feminism will make this world any better. The german army write on their "commercials" that women will be prefered. I know the german army didnt fight for a long time and just special ops teams got involved in anti terror missions, but why should women be rated higher then men when it comes to be a Soldier? There are far too much "nonsense" actions based on gender-equality that didnt even reach the real social problems with the gender-differences such as violance or abusing.

  11. I understand where she is coming from but not all women want to work in the fields that would be male dominated.
    I would never want to be a politician or work in I.T. I love protecting people but I would be too a scared for my life to be a cop.
    But I would love to be a professional athlete or a poker player.
    I just wish for equal opportunity, respect and professional credit.

  12. Bias? Or biology and science?? If the women did not want to go into computer science, then why try to force them to? Reading into the idea that is believed to be there only works against the issue. The problem isn't some type of inequality, there are other possible factors that are ignored because the people who study gender are wanting a specific result. There is a huge amount of confirmation bias in this field.

  13. 08:25
    But if the "Nerdy Male" decor affected the female students negatively. While the abscence of "Nerdy Male" decor didnt make any difference to the male students… doesnt that suggest that the female students were the ones who were more biased?
    The idea of coffee cups and plants being "neutral" decor is after all subjective.
    Also, im kind of curious to whether that study took into account the ammount of Trekkies who are female.

  14. Bias is a very natural thing we need to get adjusted to the nature and the environment and survive at last We have to understand human being. We cannot ignore the outcome from biological progress. Why do we have to remove all the difference to make the world equity just to achieve the implementation of ideology. We need to focus on the harmony not on the equity. Even though we have to pursue the human right investing our resources for mechanical gender equality is not the top priority. Almost 50 vs 50 in every fields is not possible.We don't have to make such an unatural effort to achieve 50:50. Those who are uncomfortable for differences in gender is going to make unatural effort endlessly until they get 50:50 in the fields where they are only highly valued.

  15. Graduates with a science degree, answers the question of where do we get our gender bias from with "Google images". I have the cancer now.

  16. You never made the case that there is a problem. By nature, men and women are substantially different. Men are better at some things and women at others. I don't see the concrete benefit to society if we change. In fact I do see a substantial benefit to society if we regress. Attract women back into the home where they would truly care for the next generation and not primarily for themselves. You can have children and men can't. You are way better at nurturing than men are. And men are better at producing. So, you do what you do best and let men do what they do best and things will be way better in the end for all.

  17. This is an awful talk, though I hope I’ve just simply missed something. This woman talks about the impact of media on gender bias and how it negatively sways our perceptions. However, unless I missed it, she did not point out that a vast portion of women make the consumer decisions (I do not have the statistical analysis to hand) and therefore, is the media not reflective of what they want predominantly?

  18. "When we associate masculinity with money, and muscles, and domination, and agression, we dishonor legions of good men who do not embody these characteristics". Men are selected by women on these very characteristics. It's not about being "good" or "bad", it's all about getting "laid". Then it's about helping our offspring against others' offspring. It's natural selection.

  19. The UK has a queen ,a female prime minister a female Scottish first minister. And still this is not good enough . To be honest I say equality should be encouraged a lot more .women should die on the front lines just as much as men . Us men has been dying for woman since time began I think it's time everyone die for themselves.

  20. Not even 2 minutes, and the ideology of feminism shows. This isn't about equality. This is about one gender getting the special treatment.

  21. Can I just say that she heavily leans into the idea that women are being discriminated against without actually presenting any evidence of this while also saying that people have an unconscious bias against women which is actually untrue though my biggest gripe is that she says that women aren’t equally payed or represented in the science field in which your pay is decided by your findings and reputation she also says that this happens in other fields which occurs because women choose to go into different fields and many of those that don’t are usually worse than their male counterparts but not always well either way I’m gonna end my ramblings but for those who read this far have a nice day

  22. This talk seems to indicate that gender bias is natural and pervasive. I'm confused how the "simple solution" is to rewrite how our brains work.

  23. This is a good example of pseudo-science in a video with a misleading title. Not only that the Implicit-association test has nothing to do with neuroscience but even in the social psychology field where this test is mostly used it is controversial. The vast literature disputing the test indicates that it is not clear what the test measures exactly, its lack of reproducibility, etc. It is ironical, though, that a research/presentation on people's bias and prejudices proves to be biased itself.

  24. This IAT is patently absurd. You're not tracking or analyzing gender bias, you're asking people to be biased by the very nature of the test. If you gave a 'neither male or female' option, most people would probably choose that for every word.

  25. But the most egalitarian societies like Sweden, Denmark and Norway report that fewer women want to go into STEM, most want to be a wife and mom.

  26. "in this case, fortune magazine told us necessary that melissa mayer is the real deal because as a blonde attractive young woman we might assume she wasn't".

    this. or, maybe, she was hired to turn a company around and she only just managed to sell the company to be dismembered and give a profit to stock holders. having acquired yahoo stocks around the time she was hired, and having sold the remainder of the company with a good profit some years later, i would personally vouch for the second: many a times it looked like i had thrown the money down the flush. and, rest assured, the doubts and the hard looks at the company actions weren't aired because mayer was a "blonde attractive young woman". i had fca, too, and i can assure you things were much harder for marchionne in a more or less similar situation, who was anything but blonde, attractive, or female.

    so, who's gender biased here?

    note: fca was much more worse off than yahoo. i did acquire it when marchionne had already worked some serious miracles into the company. and yet, the disbelief continued on and on and on, pretty much until the day he died.

  27. In preschool 98% of teachers are women – the hand that rocks the cradle… so the example about the "classroom setting" starts AGAINST men even before the start of schooling – as the classrooms start out being decorated and dominated by women. Going on through school over 75% of all classroom situations are dominated by women… it is boys that are dropping out of education and society in general due to the unconscious bias described – by women.

  28. She conflates the word 'influence' with the word 'bias'.
    The classroom example is not a 'bias' but merely an influence. Bias has the implication of an agency of discrimination; not a passive presence e.g. having a 'garden city' is not a bias to make people vegetarians or gardeners.

  29. Also few to no women: mechanics, carpenters, plumbers, welders, electricians, etc. Gee, why? Cause were NOT equal. As someone else mentioned, men and women excel in different areas. Get over it ladies.

  30. So, it couldn't possibly be that people think of women as more nurturing, agreeable and fragile because — they are! No, no, it must be bias, nature has nothing to do with anything.

  31. "Neuroscience is a relatively young, exciting, and fundamentally interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of the nervous systems. Problems range from investigation of the evolution of nervous system in basal vertebrates to the application of neuroscience to education and law. Neuroscientists also seek to develop neurologically plausible models of human thinking, affect and behavior.Neuroscience creates a context for scholarly conversation about the nature of mind, brain, and behavior." – University of Notre Dame

    This video shows that clearly.
    Gender deals with human behaviors with regards social expectations.

    In my opinion, we can solve this boring gender issue. How? it is all about love man (the hippies got it hhaha).
    In more practical terms, it is respecting others to be who they are, and what they want to do with their own lives. (a virtue that is rapidly diminishing in our societies). The problem is fear. It is fear of anything out of the norm, fear of change, fear of diversities, fear of differences, fear of losing our identity, fear of growing power (other than one's own), fear of loss of authority to women? (last one was a hunch)

    I would like people to accept and respect me for my choices as i do respect them for being them. Those that don't, should watch out hahaha.
    I will leave you with some wise words:
    You know that term "the world is not fair or nothing is fair in this world?" Well, MAKE IT FAIR THEN, (that's not my answer, that's the grumbling of my six year old brother when i tell him he can't have what other kids have). Learn from our young, they see no limits.

  32. funny how i knew this video would be about sexism just from the thumbnail. seems like all that female TED talkers can come up with these days is more whinging about sexism with no offering of solution.

  33. It's unethical to eliminate the pay gap; not between genders, but between skill and dedication levels. More men are willing to sacrifice everything to be a CEO. Many others are not, and more so women than men. It's just natural selection.

  34. Is it men's fault there are only 18% female congressmen? Women could vote them in but don't. And if women don't like their CEO representation in corporations, then start your own. Oh wait…you're really not that interested in doing that.

  35. What about the gender-based bias women have for men that DON'T share the housework? You know like Cristian Grey?

  36. Second talk with a bathroom line men vs women.

    We are excruciatingly over privledged if thats where "brilliant Ted talk minds" are at…weak and frankly, underexperienced speakers and these are professors in our higher education. I took off after freshman year for the real world experiences, speaking 2 foreign languages, no net, just going to cultures around the globe living among and working among them, who aren't like here. Here is a 250 year old republic, and limited by the easy life. No one leaves lights on, or buys food in huge frozen quantities in other cultures. They have tiny refrigerators and buy or grow and pick fresh daily. The places I saw had toilets in the ground, but it wasn't a low standard and they live within their thousands of years old cultures. So buyer beware, the TED talks by virtue of the volume of suddenly new expert voices in the lime light are thin. Maybe its per the risk taking level. Professor, tenure, comfy, cushy academia where no scary competing for your next meal goes on. Its a public paycheck, the Govt cheese. Its fine to learn some fact based subjects in school.
    But a large % of profs are egodriven and insecure, they lack in depth and real world experience.

  37. But where are the unequivocal facts showing these bias to be utterly wrong, like all of them? It is not because they are unconscious they have to be, like I drive way better having my unconscious mind taking the toll of driving then my conscious part.

  38. OK, so that's how it works. Work within it, or work to change it. Betcha you'll personally have better results if you work within it.

  39. I don't even know where to begin in responding to this unadulterated tripe…. I know, I just won't bother.. Job done…! 😋

  40. This had to be in San Diego. And the more power women have, the more they want. They want it all. Because at some point in the past, they think there was a point where men had it all. (Never been true – the women of the household ruled in those 1800-1850 ranches; women ran most of the stores in town and kids would give their life for their mother, but not their father). So if brainwashing is going on, it was not men for most of the last 200 years.

  41. If she wants to see bias, she should log on to youtube and watch her TED talk. And it's not "implicit". Some people are always victims and will come up with any reasoning to justify it.

  42. Lol shows a male line in a tech convention. Little did she tell you there might be 2 urinals and 3 toilets for men but the women have 2 different entrances and prob have around 20 toilets. At a convention that is primarily male. If that isnt gender inequality i dont know what is.

    Oh and her points, there is no point to telling her how her stats are wrong because she wont listen to them anyway.

  43. The ideology of equality between Man and Women is unlogical because Man and women both are physically and Mentally designed for different task and duties of life and both task and duties important for Human specie if we mixed the task we have a great lost just like if we put a IT specialists on Surgery room an Doctor on Computer Lab.

  44. So much for her education, she still can't accept God's design of men & women. Equal value but different in authority

  45. DOMINANCE is the name of the game. Take away equal opportunity programs and you bring in a game changer. Base results on IQ and not just the degree for job placement .Thank you.

  46. The implicit Association Test does not predict behavior in real settings. All the examples she gives have never been studied. It is impossible to fix an unconscious process. The best we can do is deal with overt bias.

  47. Women inequality is never going to be a thing of the past. Women I. the workplace is no different then women when they stay at home. They are never satisfied no matter where they are . And this will never change

  48. Another push for gender equality from yet another woman who cant see that the position of CEO carries with it a requirement for skin in the game. That generally means someone able to compete and manage the board. There are few women ready and willing to stand their ground when it comes to making a decision and sticking to it. Men are trained to fall on their sword. Women arent trained to follow a code of conduct that requires high standard of service, honor and duty. The extraordinary women who serve the military learn this and the more that do, the more that are infused into the workforce that actually can contribute at the highest levels. There is still something to be said for mothers teaching their girls what it is to be a good mother and good wife. The lack of this also contributes to the undermining of the family. A woman who can be a good mother and spouse can also be a great CEO. But to be fair, aggressive drive to the top usually requires dedication that women cant afford if they choose to have a family because there is time off for child bearing. And lets not deny the limited work condition for most pregnant women. Not all of them are going to just jump a plane to europe for a sector meeting. So lets just keep perspective.

  49. it's a lie that women ´does not picks computer science because the room have some things that does not like them, the fact is that the most women does not like computer science, the women likes more people, the men likes more machines

  50. Ebola will probably break out of sub Saharan Africa sometime soon. Climate change has reached the point where Civilization is seriously threatened. We are losing species at a rate greater than the close of the Permian period. Nuclear war is again becoming possible with a new arms race………and this is your issue??

  51. Now I would like to see this cross referenced with the bias of those who believe in identity politics vs those who do not, and then compared to the bias of those who prefer ketchup over mustard.

  52. She starts with the presumption that equality is good or isn't biologically driven, and if I claim she's being unconsciously bias with this talk……what defense does she have to rebut my claim……hint……THERE IS NONE!!!! It turns into "in know you are – you said you are but what am i"
    This is religious in nature NOT science

  53. "Femininity" and all its biases are tied to everything associated with that term. That goes for clothing, too. If you'd like the current negative biases to no longer be associated with femininity, then I feel that a fashion-revolution would be necessary to quite literally change the image of a strong and capable woman.
    Furthermore, perhaps we ought to stop crushing our teenage girls' self-confidence in their critical high-school years if we wish for confident and capable women to join the workforce.
    To change the negative gender bias, we need to seriously change society.

  54. Look at the other two gender pay gap vids on this channel. They turned off comments so people cant list their opinions

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *