The Medieval Islamicate World: Crash Course History of Science #7

The Medieval Islamicate World: Crash Course History of Science #7

The religion of Islam significantly influenced
knowledge-making in the greater Mediterranean and western Asian world. Islamicate scholars—meaning people influenced
by Islamic civilization, regardless of their religious views—gave us terms such as “algebra,”
“azimuth,” “algorithm,” “alcohol,” “alkali,” and “alembic.” We’ll dive into Islamic medicine and philosophers
such as the great Persian polymath Ibn Sina in future episodes. For now, let’s explore the beginnings of
Islamicate natural philosophy. [Intro Music Plays] Islamicate power expanded rapidly after the
Prophet Muhammad’s death in CE 632. What began as one vast Arab-governed state
soon fractured into two spheres of political influence: a western one centered in southern
Spain, with a capital at Córdoba, and an eastern one including the great cities of
northern Africa as well as Arabia and Mesopotamia. This eastern empire, the highly urbanized
Abbasid Caliphate, existed in some form, increasingly fragmented,
from 750–1517. The Abbasid Caliphate was a crossroads or
trading zone for Persian, Indian, and Byzantine cultures, as well as for the religions of
Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism. Many languages flourished across the Abbasid
Caliphate, as they did in the Emirate of Córdoba. This blend of cultures and belief systems
made early Islamicate science cosmopolitan—that is, generally inclusive in character. A high literacy rate thanks to Islam’s focus
on the Qur’an meant that many people—well, noble men, at least—could study natural
philosophical texts. Further, Islam-the-religion called on its
adherents to treat others as equals, helping make Islamicate knowledge production more
egalitarian. And ongoing support by pious philanthropists
including heads of states allowed Islamicate polymaths to study natural phenomena systematically. Baghdad, the first Abbasid capital, was founded by its second caliph, al-Mansur, in 754. A sprawling metropolis quickly grew up around
the original, carefully planned city. And Baghdad became the largest urban area
in the world by 930, with a population of one million. Key for our story today: Baghdad housed the
Bayt al-Ḥikmah or House of Wisdom. This great library grew out of al-Mansur’s
private collection, which he opened up to visiting scholars, including delegations from
India. Al-Mansur’s successor, Caliph al-Rashid, carried on this tradition. Al-Rashid also supported the Translation Movement,
which we’ll get to shortly. But first, let’s reflect on his rule as
a great example of the cosmopolitan character of the early Abbasids. Charlemagne sent a mission from France to
al-Rashid’s court in 799 with gifts. So in 802, al-Rashid sent Charlemagne an embassy
including an elephant named Abul-Abbas and a water clock that featured clockwork knights
who emerged once per hour. You could see the elephant’s journey as
one origin of veterinary science: the Abbasid diplomats kept the elephant healthy walking
from India to Baghdad to France, and it lived for years after in captivity. And, to the Franks, the water clock was simply
mind-blowing, something they’d never even imagined! But it was al-Rashid’s successor, Caliph
al-Maʾmūn, who in 832 refounded the House of Wisdom specifically as an international
center for translation and research. Al-Maʾmūn was involved in the House’s
daily operations, and he sponsored knowledge production programmatically, inspiring his
successors to do the same. By 850, the House of Wisdom had become the
largest library in the world. Al-Maʾmūn sponsored families of scholar–translators to bring useful texts into Arabic from Greek,
Chinese, Sanskrit, Persian, and Syriac. This should be known as the “Useful Texts
into Arabic Movement” but, for some reason, is called the Translation Movement instead. This movement began with Persian texts concerning
astrology and astronomy. Remember that, across the ancient and medieval
worlds, astronomy was the study of the heavens, and astrology the study of the influence of
heavenly bodies on earthly matters. While both were studied, astrology was seen
as more useful. After texts about the stars, the translators
moved onto others. To feed this program, al-Maʾmūn sent emissaries
to collect Greek scientific manuscripts from the Byzantines—and began demanding them
as loot in war. The Translation Movement lasted from roughly
750–950. By 950, virtually every Greek scholarly text
had been translated multiple times, and the libraries were brimming. Many translators of Baghdad particularly fell
for the works of Aristotle. One of the greatest Islamicate philosophers,
Ibn Rushd, is sometimes called “The Commentator,” meaning the number-one
Aristotle fan. To this day, more classical Greek commentaries
on Aristotle may be available in Arabic than English! Why was Caliph al-Maʾmūn so into the Persian
and Greek science? For one, supporting translations was a sign
of civic status, and a worthy cause. Al-Maʾmūn also saw scientific translation
as highly practical. For example, a better understanding of astronomy
led to more accurate official timekeeping for mosques. And improved geographical knowledge helped
more accurately align prayers to Mecca. The Translation Movement also fostered a strong
appreciation for reasoned thought, at least among the ruling and scholarly classes. This rubbed off on religious philosophy, giving
rise to the school of mu‘tazilism. Mu‘tazila such as al-Maʾmūn believed that
rationalism could be used to understand both the physical world and God. They brought the Greek tradition of reasoned
debate about the nature of the cosmos into an Islamicate social context, looking beyond
a literal reading of the Qur’an for sources of knowledge. In fact, places of learning under the Abbasid Caliphate included observatories, hospitals,
and public libraries, as well as mosques and madrasas, or Islamic colleges. Madrasas were critical centers of knowledge
transmission. There were thirty in Baghdad in the 1200s,
and one hundred and fifty in Damascus by 1500. Each madrasa had its own library full of paper
books. Paper had been introduced to western Asia
from China, and paper factories appeared in Samarkand, Baghdad, Cairo, Morocco, and finally
in Spain by 1150. While they were religious centers, madrasas
were also places where students could learn law as well as Greek natural philosophy, including
logic and arithmetic, astronomy, and astrology. Abbasid scholars didn’t merely translate foreign writers. In translating the texts, these polymaths
wrote commentaries on them, comparing, summarizing, and analyzing them. Even when motivated by utilitarian concerns, the work of careful reading and comparison
led many scholars to pursue new questions in natural philosophy. For example, observatories arose throughout
the Islamicate world. Al-Maʾmūn built two observatories, one in
Baghdad and another outside Damascus. At these sites, scholars refined astronomical
handbooks, called zīj, that helped fix prayer times. In fact, by the late ninth century, Islamicate
polymaths such as Abu Maʿshar, the famous Persian physician al-Razi —whom
we’ll meet again soon—and the Indian-influenced al-Biruni were even proposing
heliocentric models of the solar system. Their theories went against Aristotle but
with observed data! In geography, Islamicate scholars extended
Ptolemy’s system. Our scientific hero today, Caliph al-Maʾmūn,
commissioned a measurement of earth’s circumference that was pretty amazing: two groups ventured
into the desert, finding a specific location by following the stars. One group walked north and the other south,
tracking the stars for one degree. They counted their paces. Then they walked back, remeasured, averaged
the measurements… and multiplied by 360 to derive a circumference of 24,480 miles. The modern measurement? 24,901—less than 2% more accurate than the
one made by al-Maʾmūn’s team. And don’t get me started on astrolabes! You know—mechanical devices used for measuring
incline by astronomers and navigators? To determine the position of celestial bodies
in the night sky? The ones Islamicate astronomers improved by
adding the azimuth, or direction of compass bearing? And then merged with armillary spheres, or
models of the entire cosmos constructed from rings and hoops that revolved on their axes,
around 900? And then improved into geared mechanical astrolabes
in 1235? I’m looking at you, Abi Bakr of Isfahan!? MEANWHILE—back at the House of Wisdom… In addition to translation and improvement
on Greek natural philosophy, scholars were also innovating in new realms. In mathematics, medieval Islamicate scholars
focused on arithmetic and algebra. They adopted the number zero and the “Arabic”
decimal-style numerals from India, using them so much that they became known to us as, well,
Arabic. They also developed trigonometry. One example of this work in particular jumps
out: in 820, at the House, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi wrote Kitab al-Jabr, or The Compendious Book on Calculation by
Completion and Balancing, an original manual of practical math. Al-Khwarizmi wasn’t the first to work on
algebra, but he set out the general rules for solving equations that was highly influential
for centuries. Algebra introduced a theory that treated rational
numbers, irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes—all numbers—as similar objects, ready to be
manipulated. Or, as my dude himself says it: “When I
consider what people generally want in calculating, I found that it always is a number.” Mic drop! This opened up the possibility of exploring
new areas of mathematics such as algorithms, quadratic equations, and polynomial equations. Also at the House of Wisdom, thinkers such
as Mohammad Mūsā worked on the basic laws of physics. Others focused on optics, performing many
experiments. And doctors and philosophers trained and traded
works. But what about the engineers—the scholars
working on technē instead of epistēmē? The Abbasid state privileged public service and the interests of the state, focusing on
improving useful arts such as hydraulic engineering and agricultural science. The Abbasids used the arch, rather than the
Greek post and lintel system. And they constructed large dams, waterwheels,
and qanats, or underground channels to tap groundwater. Abbasid technology thus resembled that of
the Romans, with craftspeople, not scholars, typically building actual stuff. But a few stand-out engineers from this time
period created wonders so—er—wondrous, that they deserve a little attention from
ThoughtBubble: In 850, at the House of Wisdom, the Banū Mūsā brothers—Mohammad,
just mentioned, and Ahmad and Hasan—wrote The Book of Ingenious Devices: a compendium of one hundred devices and how
to use them. This included the earliest programmable machine,
“The Instrument that Plays by Itself.” Medieval automation, whaaat!?h
And it gets cooler. In 1206—far from Baghdad, in what is now
Diyarbakır, Turkey—the polymath al-Jazarī wrote an
even more amazing book on machines: The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices
also covers one hundred machines, with instructions on how to build them. Most of these are trick vessels, but others
include water wheels, watermills, a giant water clock, elephant- and castle-shaped clocks,
fountains improving upon designs by the Banū Mūsās, a candle clock, and musical automata. Al-Jazarī even designed a water-powered,
perpetually-playing flute! How did these devices work? Well, it helped that al-Jazarī invented the
camshaft, which would make it into Europe by the 1300s, an early version of the crankshaft,
and the segmental gear. You can look up how these work online, but
the point is: our modern world runs on them, and this guy figured them out in medieval
times. That is so. Dang. Cool. But the coolest of al-Jazarī’s inventions
were his full-on automata—medieval robots. He made humanoid machines including one that
could serve water or tea. He made a flushing toilet with a nearby servant,
who refilled the basin when flushed. And the pièce de résistance: al-Jazarī
constructed a four-piece robot band that floated on a lake, entertaining party guests. The music? Most likely programmable, using tiny pegs
and levers. Thanks Thought Bubble! We could spend several more episodes on science
in the early Islamicate world. And we will come back to some of the people
and themes mentioned today. There’s a common understanding of the history
of medieval Eurasia and North Africa long-held by many English speakers is just plain wrong:
instead of a “dark age” defined by conflicts between Muslims and Christians who didn’t
understand one another, we encounter urban centers of trade and knowledge exchange populated
by natural philosophers with a keen desire to build upon earlier insights regardless
of their origins. Next time—we’ll build many cities and
one very long canal in the rich Middle Kingdom, China. Crash Course History of Science is filmed
in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all
this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly
with us, you can check out some of our other channels like Scishow, Eons, and Sexplanations. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course
free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform
that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making
Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Author: Kennedi Daugherty

100 thoughts on “The Medieval Islamicate World: Crash Course History of Science #7

  1. to bad if you were alive back then they would not hesitate meaning to kill you, if you did not have something you wanted that he could not get throw force

  2. I hope more newly atheist seeing this video so they don't continuously bashing how religion hindering the progress of science.

  3. The Muslims r the ppl who created alot of the base of science, but they r not given credit 4 that.
    Thank Allah CrashCoruse didn't 🙂

  4. And then came the mongols and throws all books in Tigris river and killed thousands of civilians and also throws them into the river until the river was blue and red 😥😥😥

  5. Sorry there was no Golden age Thanks to say the truth about Persia. But I need to Add :
    First the name is Kharazmi like the city he was born in not Al Kharazmi he was not Arab. He was Persian and his name was Arabized. Like the name of Sina who has been Latinized to Avicen ( father of medicine) prevent people to understand that the roots of sciences are not European but from Iran.

    The first university in world was in Iran in 230 the name is GondiShapour. 370 years before Arab invasion.
    It’s easy to understand who brought culture to whom!
    To make it short Arabs were people of desert and totally illiterate they came in Iran or Persia ( Persia changed name in to Iran in 1935) During Arab invasion they destroyed and burned all books and tablets. Arabs attacked Byzantine empire first then Persian empire. Byzantine and Persians were weak and totally exhausted from years of battles. Persians has a 8 years old King and there were facing disagreements between local chiefs.
    Barmakians or Barmicides were a very famous Persian family who had made already schools for all Persian scientists. As a Persian Doctor a Member of Barmakian Family saved a Harun al Rashid family member , Harun al Rashid let the Iranian scientists working under Barmakians supervision . Arabs forced Iranians to translate their books and knowledges in to Arab. Kharazmi the famous Iranian scientist the father of Algebra and others worked in that schools but before the so called house of wisdom in « Bagdad » there was all infrastructure in the Iranian city Ctesiphon (Real name in Farsi is Tisphoon the capital of Persian empire )all that dynamic was transferred to the city next to Ctesiphon that became Bagdad or Bay dad , bay means god in old Persian daad : give) Now today Arabs and Muslims try to use Persian scientists to furnish their empty scientific universe with (who were mostly Zoroastrien but got Arabic names by force under Killings torture and taxes like they did in North Africa with Kabyls and Berbers)check the Arab invasion atrocities in TARIKH TABARI vol 3 to 16. ( once again Arabs are from Arabic peninsula , in all the other Muslim countries people are not Arabs. (If you are from an other Muslim country and you think you are Arab please go and read your real history.
    Arabs generally add "Al" before Persian names. Persians had many scientists such as Kharazmi the father of algebra and algorithm,Tusi(astrology , trigonometry) Razi,( alcohol)Banou,(mechanics) Sina named Avicenne (Medecin) Haytham ( blood circulation and relation with respiration, Rumi, kashi theorem of same name etc etc all their works and books has been translated to Arab then arrived to Europe by Arab merchants and invasion of North Africa then translated in monasteries in to Greek and Latina and used, copy by scientists Kepler,Copernic,Newton ,Descartes ,DaVinci etc. Some parts of their books are total plagia of Persian books with 100% same sketches.
    Persians had thousands of years of technological and cultural Advance so Islam or Arab invasion did not bring Sciences and Alphabet to Persia but the contras. Persians made an Alphabet to Arabs from Pahlavi so the Coran was written.
    So pls kindly go and Study exactly what happened before and propaganda about Arabs invasion and so called “golden age “. Islam and even Christianity (inquisition )were always against scientific theories and discovered. European scientists passed years to understand all the discoveries of those new informations coming written in Arabic . That’s why they thought all was Arabic. They thought 0 and all numbers were Arabic.
    If Islam and Arabs were so advanced , today Arabic Peninsula And North Africa would be Silicon Valley.
    The Persians glory has been stopped by Arab invasion and just after Mogol invasion that left Persia knock out.

  6. I'm so glad this history is being more out-spoken. It really is amazing. Please make a separate Crashcourse section for Islamic History! It would help so many out!

  7. Wonderful… muslims were scientist , theologians, thinkers but with time muslim lost their ways.. it happens to every civilization…

  8. Love your episodes always, nice to see a topic on old Islam culture. butt maybe you should illustrate a map while explaining about the people and capitals where it’s located. It will def help visualize and understand more quickly. 🖤🙏👌

  9. In the eyes of Islamic science, we are human world energy
    I have given the wisdom and knowledge that if you do not use them, then you will be accountable to me! I will not bring you to ruin I am not al-Qur'ân. I have not made any mistake. Do not get a little bit of education. Eqkara- Dear gentleman, the human brain has a low 1 million connection, one trillion activists can be used in the human body. Gave it! Now physics will use the conscience that will produce the weapon from the human body, the molecular bomb will fail – the proxy war system will be decomposed – Star Wars will not be needed! In the world, you can make a beautiful peace – for which Allah Almighty has given the exhortation and the Messenger; For the purpose of which the scholars gave the responsibility of society, by our religious scholars, only the Ahadith produces the bubbles in the name of the Quran, for which we came back, no scientist came I do not know if anyone has the courage to repeat these words!

  10. FINALLY! The contributions of Islamic scholars to the sciences and mathematics is invaluable. Thanks for doing this video in particular.

  11. Wow, an actual mention of samarkand, or really central asia at all, in a mainstream history video. Neat

  12. The Arab-Islamic civilization was great and had great achievements for all mankind, where it welcomed the participation of different races, nations and religions and created a civilization without us, we reached what we have reached today of technological development. I hope the Arabs will rejoice

  13. 0:13 Islamic scholars believed in the same religious view that there is No God But Allah and Prophet Mohammed is his servant and messenger.

  14. Does he mention the Islamic view on slavery and human equality? Strange how none of the attention given to slavery in the USA is never focussed anywhere else!

  15. And there are people who claim that Muslims never contributed anything to science or to this world at all. Lesser known ones.

  16. We Kurds are proud of Al-Jaziri.
    What a shame that Kurds, and muslims in general have fallen to the standard we are at now. The Ummah needs a new golden age!

  17. Reminds me of the American history classes back in the day where they tell you what they wanted you to hear. Reality, Muslims killed countless people to force islam on others. What changed today? Nothing! Islam is the same violent religion who's destiny is to spread islam by force.

  18. Islam claim that it is a religion of peace, however, Christ said that He didn't come to bring peace but a sword. Islam is antichrist. Christianity is supposed to be a religion of love…but this Roman Catholic corrupted the reputation of the Church of Christ.

  19. Muslims have established a great sanctuary in the world through Islamic history There are great stations for Baghdad and Damascus to play a role in the rise of Europe Andalusia was a center of radiation in Europe when Islam entered Spain and spread out Progress, Progress and Prosperity In Europe, modern schools and universities have spread In the world he studied the sons of the kings of Britain and France in Baghdad and Andalusia Muslims have played a major role in the flourishing of the barn in India building the city of New Delhi building mosques Schools in India spread culture in the Indian subcontinent It was the efforts of Muslims Muslim scientists contributed to the development of human sciences in all aspects of physics, chemistry, mathematics and medicine Big names such as Jaber bin Hayyan Tawhidi In chemistry Ibn al-Nafis in medicine Ibn Sina Abu Ishaq See the history of Muslims in the world that they are true friends Truth

  20. Isis destroyed the oldest library for a reason. They trying to destroy all the good work ancestors created.

  21. Cant't imagine how great the upcoming khilafah can be after hearing the greatness of the umayyads.. abbasids and the usmani ottomans.. each have their own speciality. And they held islam very high. Thats the secret.

  22. Such a sad story, one of the cultures which improved from other countries and then fail by subjecting to fundamentalist philosophy. I think it's because the mosque and state became one. Else the Islamic world would have thrived without violence beautifully

  23. if quran was so accurate why the chiristian religion rise? currently, Muslims are the least literate in this world.

  24. The religion of Islam influenced knowledge-making…yes because early Golden Age free thinkers like Avicenna/Ibn Sina rediscovered ANCIENT GREEK knowledge. We saw this this great Golden Age destroyed by the preaching of religious fundamentalist Al-Ghazali in the 13th century, science in Islam died & just look at the Muslim world, it is still dead.

  25. There was no credit given to the Jews. Jews at that time lived in peace with Muslims and had over 70,000 Jews living in Baghdad or back then referred to as Bavel (Babble) there were 60 Jewish institutions called Yeshivas, the earliest version of schools. In the house. In the house of wisdom the Talmud was written the first organized law system that many of today's laws derive from. The Muslims got their idea of astrology from Jews since Jews for thousands of years before read the stars and moon (and still today do) to know when to pray and which direction Jerusalem is to pray towards. Many of these facts are proven by Jewish midevil traveler who wrote notes of the places he visited. Let's go back to when we had peace 🔯♥️☪️

  26. Cue cringy Muslims claiming credit for their religion totally unaware their very religion prosecuted those scientists to no ends calling them apostates hence why Islam hasn't contributed to science since then!

  27. Let's hope Muslims of today come out of "finding something written on a cloud or a bread" and actually carry the tradition of knowledge, wisdom and advancement in technology.

  28. As a Muslim this makes me very proud, this show people (mostly in the west) that Islam isn’t terrorism, Islam forbids killing, Islam doesn’t say we hate women or hate any other religion… I feel sad for Islam today 🙁

  29. I am glad that you are trying to show some important things of the science history.
    Brains exist everywhere regardless of color, caste and creed.

    All we need to do is to destroy hates in the name of color, caste and creed.

  30. Missing part is the Church monopoly over Christian world, brainwashed Christians against Muslims still going on through Jews controlled western media, just like the Crusaders who weren't Christians but paid soldiers and butchers, looters killed, raped and debt Christians more than Muslims, Templers were jews who debt Europe to fight war for them against Muslims, same thing happening again through brainwashing media against Muslims in the west. Radical, Fundamental, Terrorist, extremist and many other fake propaganda. These Jihadi groups are paid groups and they've massacred Millions of Muslims as compare to any other community. All the game is to destabilize, thereafter plunder and loot oil and minerals from small Muslim countries.

  31. The Muslims are away from their religion that's why the world is how it is one thing no one looks into is that Islam is the religion of Justice

  32. The Prophet said "If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 54, Number 537)

  33. When the Meccans asked Muhammad to do a miracle to prove that he was Allah’s prophet, he supposedly reached up with his sword and cut the moon in half.

    vol. 4, nos. 830, 831, 832

  34. I feel sad for the muslims today but I believe that every nation has his own time,its just the media and the stereotypes about islam and muslims that drive me crazy they sadly got no credits just humiliation nowadays .

  35. The only things that made decline of the islamic science today is that they only believe that every knowledge is fit in one book

  36. He's giving the information but he's not telling you how and why they got to those territories and how brutal they got there

  37. ahhh god the intro music is the WORST ever really it's terrible.. it's like a casio synth from the 80's playing a demo 🙁

  38. "Islamicate scholars—meaning people influenced by Islamic civilization, regardless of their religious views" i.e. not actually Muslims. Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Muslim heretics

  39. c. 570 – The Prophet Muhammad is born in the city of Makkah, in Western Arabia, a city which had gained a monopoly on the caravan trade throughout the region…..

    Muhammad, an Arab, was born into the Banu Hashim clan of the larger Quraysh tribe, the very wealthy and powerful tribe that controlled the city of Makkah and that served as custodians of its sacred Ka'aba shrine, which housed hundreds of idols of pre-Islamic Arabian gods and goddesses, as well as other deities from all over the world of Late Antiquity…..

    The presence of the Ka'aba shrine had turned Makkah into a popular site of pilgrimage, and the Quraysh became very wealthy through their dominance of the caravan trade, and from using their city's status as a pilgrimage site to their economic benefit….

    However, Muhammad himself was born into the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe, which was not nearly as prosperous or financially successful as other clans within the Quraysh, such as the Banu Umayyah (Banu 'Abd Shams), or the Banu Makhzum clans….

    c. 595 – Muhammad marries Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, a wealthy widow, who is older than he is, who became wealthy through the caravan trade…..

    c. 610 – Muhammad claims to have received revelations from Allah (God), after seeking solitude and spiritual contemplation in the cliffs and caves in the outskirts of Makkah…. At first, he kept this experience to himself, but he tells his wife, Khadijah, and she becomes his first believer….

    c. 613 – Muhammad begins preaching his message of Islam openly in Makkah…..

    Muhammad's message is that Allah (God) is the only god, and that are no other gods than God, that is, the God of the ancient Israelites, but he has no associates or sons or relation whatsoever…..
    Jesus is simply one of Allah's great prophets, and none will share with God in his divinity or glory…..
    He preaches that the worst sin one can commit is to associate a partner with Allah (God), who alone created the universe and all that is in it, as well as disbelieving the message and warning of Allah's prophets, and being wicked and cruel towards your fellow person… His message is a message of strict monotheism and complete submission to Allah….

    Muhammad claims to receive revelations intermittently from c. 610 until his death in 632 CE…..

    His message is initially only received by a few followers, and the leaders of the wealthy Quraysh tribe oppose Muhammad and persecute him and his followers, because they see him as a threat to their society and their traditions, as well as to their economic prosperity, since so much of their wealth is derived from the status of the Ka'aba, with all of its idols, as a sacred site of pilgrimage……

    622 – After being invited to serve as a mediator, or arbiter, between the warring tribes of the oasis town of Yathrib (located north of Makkah), Muhammad sends his followers on ahead of him to Yathrib, and follows them shortly after escaping an attempt on his life by the Quraysh……

    This journey to Yathrib, later to be renamed Madinat an-Nabi, that is
    'the City of the Prophet', or simply 'Madina', is called the 'Hijrah, meaning 'the emigration', and marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar……

    624 – At the Battle of Badr, Muhammad and the Muslims defeat the Quraysh of Makkah in the first large scale battle between the two sides…..
    Muhammad attributes the victory to divine intervention….

    630 – the Muslim conquest of Makkah… Muhammad enters Makkah with his Muslim army and conquers Makkah, in a nearly bloodless conquest, going to the Ka'aba shrine in the center of the city, clearing it out of all its idols, and dedicating it to Allah (God)….

    632 – Muhammad gibes his last revelation, and then dies in Madinah…..

  40. My view?

    If Mu'tazila had developed further and wasn't stifled and eventually stomped out by close-mindedness and traditionalism, the Islamicate world wouldn't have declined as fast as it did.

  41. Amazing revelations for us, who are teaching and learning in a Muslim area. The Medieval Islamicate World was filled with people who indulged in activities seeking theoretical knowledge side by side with the the application of it. Caliph Al-Rashid- supported the Translation Movement, Caliph Al-Mamun -commissioned a delegation to measure the circumference of the earth, Ibn Rush – the commentator, and men like Ibn Sina, Al Kwarishmi, polymath Abu Mashar, Persian Physician Al Razi, Indian-influenced Al-Biruni, Muhammad Musa shared their knowledge in medicine, mathematics, physics while the Musa Brothers, Al-Jazari (who tinkered on crankshaft and segmented gears that propelled our mechanical world of today) shared their knowledge in technology.

  42. في عرب هون ؟! … ممكن تشرحولي التعليقات سلبية لو ايجابية؟ أقصد تبع الاجانب ههههه 👍

  43. पहले मैं मानता था कि 'मज़हब नहीं सिखाता आपस में बैर करना' पर कुरआन पढने के बाद मेरे विचार सर के बल पलट गये और इसका कारण कुरआन की ये सूरा : आयतें हैं —

    2:98 – अल्लाह गैर मुस्लिमों का शत्रु है ।

    3:85 – इस्लाम के अलावा कोई अन्य धर्म स्वीकार नहीं है ।

    8:12 – इस्लाम को इंकार करने वालों के दिलों में अल्लाह खौफ भर देगा और मुसलमानों तुम उनकी गर्दन पर वार करके उनका अंग-अंग काट दो ।

    3:118- केवल मुसलमानों को ही अपना अंतरंग मित्र बनाओ ।

    3:28 और 9:23 – गैर मुस्लिमों को दोस्त न बनाओ ।

    8:39 – गैर मुस्लिमों से तब तक युद्ध करो जब तक की अल्लाह का दीन पूरी तरह कायम न हो जाए ।

    22:30– मूर्तियां गन्दगी हैं ।

    9:5 – मूर्तीपूजकों को जहां और जैसे पाओ वहां घात लगा कर मार दो ।

    33:61- मुनाफिक और मूर्तीपूजक जहां भी पकडे़ जाएंगे बुरी तरह कत्ल किये जाएंगे ।

    3:62 , 2:255 , 27:61 और 35:3 – अल्लाह के अलावा कोई अन्य प्रभू पूज्य नहीं है ।

    21:98 – अल्लाह के सिवाय किसी और को पूजने वाले जहन्नुम का ईंधन हैं ।

    9:28 – मूर्तीपूजक नापाक (अपवित्र) हैं ।

    4:101 – काफिर तुम्हारे खुले दुश्मन हैं ।

    9:123 – काफिरों पर जुल्म करो ।

    9:29 – काफिरों को अपमानित कर उनसे जजिया कर लो ।

    66:9 – काफिरों और मुनाफिकों से जिहाद (जंग) करो ।

    4:56 – आयतों को इंकार करने वाले की खाल पकाएंगे ।

    8:69 – लूट का सब माल (मतलब महिलाओं सहित) हलाल है ।

    9:14 – अल्लाह मोमिनों के हाथों काफिरों को यातना देगा ।

    8:57 – युद्ध-बंदियों पर नृशंसता करो ।

    32:22 – इस्लाम छोडने वालों से बदला लो ।

    आदि ….

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