100 thoughts on “Q&A – The Future of Humanity – with Yuval Noah Harari

  1. Grow, Discover and Explore. That is what all humanity ever done and achive. AI will be used for that and much more we only have to figure out how, thats what scare me, humans dont do well with this decisions bcuz we always need to try the worst option (the one we do less and get more) before we do the right one for all of us. Human mind will be the commodity in next generations and if you dont have the best one you can always be the father of one.

  2. This useless human will buy one toyota egoist and one heart attack cheeseburger with fries. Wait, I will let me check with my AI.

  3. Very interesting.  the fact is that politically we are becoming slower and slower with increasing number of accelerating problems to solve… climate change is one, energy crisis will come back soon, overpopulation is ongoing, water, polution… and this is without saying that old problems are still there like acid rains and nuclear menaces.  All this makes me wonder if we are driving in any manner the futur of the world.

  4. We live in a system which oppresses and exploits human energy. AI will feed the matrix we live in so humans will be no longer the source of energy.

  5. Human nature is not constant. It follows that permanent solutions should be impossible to work out, for the future. Thus, I think plastic direct democracy might be the path to head down, rather than "representative politics" a.k.a "incompetent greed based representation" in my world. I am a member of Sweden's (3 parties merged into one some years back) direct democratic party. I have a little hope we can get the space ship Planet Earth back on course before it is too late, if not much.

  6. Maybe the only way out for humanity in future is to explore the universe, and colonise another planet or galaxy. lol

  7. IMO, consciousness leads to desire, the desire to control and to have a purpose/meaning. So with consciousness, AI will finally "know themselves", and want to have their own identity, want to control human purposefully.

  8. 29:30 "a lot of futurologists are far too fascinated by the technological aspects and it's too divorced from the grey day-to-day realities of economics and politics."

  9. 36:27 discussion about human nature: turns out human nature is not a constant. It's more mutable than we predicted/expected. And for the past century, all political ideologies have based their views on the assumption that human nature is a constant. Now the constant has gone, what will be the new anchor point for the political debate?

  10. Last question: if the autonomous cars are inside one big network system and they can communicate with each other, then there shouldn't be a problem of car crashes.

  11. so taking a historical perspective and looking at the world and its systems today we see clearly that the 'elite' or ruling class are amoral – surely this is a major challenge for the vast majority of life – if we continue to follow and be led by such groups we are working towards our own demise

  12. To go deeper, there is a chance the passenger of the car will survive if it steer away from the crowd because the advanced car have all sorts of safety mechanism, the pedestrians have no such protection if hit by the car.
    I don`t believe AI in car should be programmed to contains certain specific decision making algorithm, instead its decision-making algorithms should take all the input criteria into account before deciding which course of actions to take resulting in the least amount of damage to society in that particular situation.

  13. As long as we have competitions between companies and between nations, we will never see the day of working 2 or 3 days a week: greed for more (more means higher chance of survival) drives individuals in seeking more productive employees and better capitals because efficiency is the main factor differentiating between company`s competitive edge.
    Even citizens in the most richest and advanced country needs to work longer hours because of scarcity of resources in planet Earth couplet with the ever increasing world`s population fighting for ever fewer spaces of land available to build ever more inflated pricing of houses.

    Solution: One World Government
    – better at managing limited resources to produces the most useful item to be consumed by world`s citizens who don`t need to work long hours to access the basic goods and services.
    – One way for individual to access better goods and service is accumulation of `Individual Credit Point` (no criminal records, positive contributions to society, adds values to humankind, volunteer, taking more courses of continuing-educations, willing to study difficult subjects in higher learning, saving lives, etc.) and this system will replaces monetary currency.

  14. Hydrogen is not the future, star is the past future
    Star is no longer the central focus, planet is the new center of this solar system
    Planet is not the most precious in the universe, life-form is the new kid on the block for it is rare
    Biological life-form is now cheap and abundant for it consume and serve little purpose, biological intelligent beings are the cream of the crop among life-form for they know how to use hydrogen, star, planets, and life-form purposely to enhances survival
    Intelligent beings is fast becoming obsolete for it cannot adopt fast enough in an ever faster changing world, artificial life-form will rule the galaxy for they are better at evolving to adopt to space travel and toxic alien planets

    Will energy life-form be the next to manage the universe?

    What will come after that? Gravitational life-form who will lives inside countless black holes and explore higher DIMENSIONS and infinite MULTIVERSE?

  15. We already have an useless class. What will happen is that we're gonna have more politicians, sociologists, gender specialists, conceptual artists (and their critics) and so on xD

  16. And just so you know russia will have a nuke capable of destroying a whole US state by 2020, we have shitty violent cultures in the middle east being stirred by 2 fucking nosy, meddling countries that have been fighting their wars in foreign territories forever, nuclear states, cultural marxism, neo fascists, we have messianic megalomaniac billionaires playing god across the globe, we even have a crazy communist belligerent relic state threatening war all the time, so why bother planning so far into the future? xD Well at least climate change could be probably bullshit, that's a plus xD

  17. Muchas gracias!!!! Este hombre tiene un gran talento y capacidad de comunicación/difusión de la ciencia, con una brillante y amplia visión de las posibilidades que nos acechan a la humanidad en un futuro inmediato. Enhorabuena!!!

  18. At around 20:00, he spoke about the possibility that consciousness does not emerge from neuronal activity, but from what else could it possibly arise? Even if it were some strange external factor that imparted it, it would surely have to be acting on the brain.

  19. Poor Harari… You acknowledge you know nothing about consciousness…. Go to the Zohar… It's right there under your nose!!!

  20. Closing remarks: Market forces alone? That's democracy means more Muslim citizens (higher birth rates), so Muslims will rule Planet Earth, in the near future.

  21. At around 19:00 in this video , he mentions how fast that job skills become obsolete. I came out of the IT field where job skills became obsolete approximately every 6 to 8 months. Thirty five percent of my time was spent learning the latest technology so I could just keep up. I agree with him and think that the pace of change in the future will in turn drive job skills obsolescence that much faster.

  22. Consciousness is required to make conscious decisions. If there were no consciousness a stimulus of fear would always resolve in flight respond (unless there is other more powerful stimulus). Consciousness allows us to make decisions despite our gut feeling. The evolutionary advantage of such adaptation is a variety of responses, semi-random from an ecosystem's point of view. This variety grants a specie an ability to explore different kinds of behaviour in response to the same stimulus which works as hedging against falling in the same evolutionary trap as an entire population. Which allowed, for example 75% of humans to run from a predator and 25% to try fighting it despite experiencing fear. Consciousness is a way of unaware self-design for a specie.

  23. I disagree when he says that the politicos in this day and age are aloof and not particularly interested in the internet. What are you talking about ? The politicians are in the business of control and they know that the internet is the new platform for mass communications. They are not siting idly by. Read what Bernays says below:

    We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. … In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons … who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind.
    ~Edward Bernays, Propaganda (1928), p. 10

  24. Nice way to understand is READING Ken Wilber´s book "The Spectrum of Consciousness" This will give you the structure of thought and be prepared to learn. Then go back to Yuval listen again. ENJOY.
    Love to see hear a debate with Ray Kurzweil´s Singularity,+ The age of Spiritual Machines debate Yuval´s Homo Deus. Thanks.

  25. Social security in the Netherlands is based on solidarity and fraternity. All citizens are collectively supported, and people with a high income pay a larger contribution to the system than people with lower salaries. The social security system in the Netherlands consists of social services and social insurances.

  26. The main principle of the system of the Netherlands is that all members of society must be able to play an equally active role in society. Social rights and duties however are two sides of the same coin, …

  27. The value of human being in the future is – we have the potential to revolt, which creates an extra cost for the administration. Thus, the administration will give human free money less than the "management (I mean kill)" cost to maximize their interests.

  28. Consciousness is a with the mind (citta), not with the brain. Brain is a part of body! ➕➖✖➗✅®™

  29. Some problems with all this thinking:
    1. Very poor definition of consciousness. So, arrogant and arbitrary to claim it is so much different than intelligence as it is to say , that's the same as intelligence. We simply don't know. And we haven't yet provided our "intelligent machines" with any semblance of our sensory organs. So, too early and too immature to make such aphorisms..

    2.That humans will become useless, because "machines" will be able to do everything better than us. This illusion is because we deified our economic systems, and forgot that there's value in the anthropocentric view. To me someone that is so fanatic a supporter of an economic system, that sees humans as useless, because they can't support the economic model better than the machines,is the same as a Muslim that can't live with the idea other people don't believe in his/her Allah , and gets into the store and murders people.

    3. Beware ! Let me make my own arrogant and arbitrary assumptions and definitions. There's intelligence in the making of science and technology and there's wisdom in the using it properly. Reaching at a dead end because we can't imagine humans supporting the economy better than the mechanical alternative is not only hilarious but tragic as well, and shows how sick we are in supporting an idea, our economic religion. I am sure societies can work perfectly well, by employing everyone, by putting a control to birth rates, by using the machines supporting the logistics of all this, and by paying everyone, not because of charity but because they work. In general the motive would be to make humans happy ,not making our spreadsheets happy.

    4. Plus, making "conscious" machines(I would prefer human level intelligence), is not creating slaves to serve our sick ambitions better , but it is creating sentient entities, either the same or more intelligent and more conscious than us. So, those who dream of world domination by bypassing human slavery and using "mechanical unconscious slaves" instead, because it is outside our humanistic and religious bans, better think again. Developing intelligence that will be the same or higher level than ours , will not have "machines" only revolt but at best they will put all those morons to mental institutions or at worst they will put them at trial for crimes against sentient life.

    How do you like all this , you phony intellectuals?

  30. Many ideas thrown by his thinking intellect. Useful talk. Read the book What is Islam by Parwez to get an alternative non religious view of human probs and their solutions.

  31. As far as my intuition can tell me, it seems to be the case that intelligence is the biproduct of conciousness and not the other way around. I think trying to understand this by analizing humans is way too difficult. But if we analize let's say an amoeba or any basic organism what we will find there is their will to survive and reproduct. For that purpose they use its DNA code, as well as their feels (through cellular membrane etc). And their primitive AI is their weapon to acomplish it. In case of human, our porpose as well as our AI tools are much more complex but it is basically the same as in the amoeba. That's is why AI like Watson or their future predecsors will never get conciousness (unless they become something very different) because they are just the tool but without nothing that really make use of it, because they lack of even the most basic purpose of self survival.

  32. Oh ffs… people are so narrow minded. It's repeatedly said dozen times: "AI will replace humans in nearly all jobs you can imagine. Most humans will be left with nothing to do". And people come up with questions like "do you think that, if we will work 3 hours instead of 8, then we will have free time for singing, yoga, art, painting…" *sigh*… That's all you will be doing: singing and fucking around, you f***, because even now your job is artificially created to keep you employed. Because there are far more efficient ways known to organize jobs, yet they will leave 80% of people unemployed, even without AI.

  33. would it have killed them to give them each a chair? his suggestion to the "car imminent accident" problem is brilliantly hilarious!

  34. To the last point – the car will not only decide your worth (?) but the worth of the five people – say, for example, the driver was a Google founder. Why driverless cars in the first place? Why not better public transportation?

  35. And when you find out that it is the other way around , meaning the brain just react on you you will find the truth.

  36. plants are intelligent? highly intelligent? it's about time to define intelligence. otherwise he's picking a few notions, equivocates,uses loosely, skips between metaphorical usages and leaves very little meaning in the wake..

  37. The psychologist Csikszentmihalyi identifies a few functions of consciousness – one is that it allows us to react in a non-instinctive way to incoming sensation, another that we can invent information that does not derive in a cause-and-effect manner from incoming sensation – this allows us to create stories, an ability of great interest to Harari…

  38. we may have to look back in humanity to restart the system of human society whihc may have coupled Human and machine relation or co relation rather then replcaing humans

  39. Great man who cunningly avoided bringing Jewish stuffs on to his sapiens etc works

  40. At about 31:30, 'technology is outpacing politics' … by implication, is 'technology is outpacing morality, intelligence outpacing consciousness'.

    He verifies that at about 40:13 … ‘I think that in many cases, the problems are not technical at all. The major of problems are political, and legal … it’s not just an issue for engineers … the really interesting issues relate to legal issues, and legal issues of course, relate back to politics and ethics … to morality’.

    I would rephrase ‘really interesting issues’ to ‘the most salient issues’.

    I could not help but to remember that gift from Fukushima that keeps on giving … how even the Japanese government has been forced to admit that the nuclear meltdown is now acknowledged to be caused by ‘human error’ … and when parsed, those errors were moral lapses in group dynamics … authoritarianism and territorial issues within and between competing bureaucracies. This seems to be less a problem of Japan Inc. and more an issue of inevitably with our species when cognitevely 'and therefore, morally) limited humans are involved with problems of scale.

    Despite any attempt at a foolproof system with multiple, redundant fail-safe mechanisms, I suspect complexity is only sustainable when it is an organic, emergent phenomenon such as ecosystems.

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/17/japanese-government-liable-negligence-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-disaster

    This speech / Q & A was made in 2016, and my comment is now almost 2 years later. Verification of his point regarding where the ‘interesting’ problems arise can be seen regarding the unpredictability of the political landscape. With the stroke of an autocratic pen, a secret trade agreement is broken or made, and years of legal progress overturned for nepotistic, narcissistic, or psychopathic purposes.

    I hope I am mistaken, but I can only see one inevitable future of humanity, and it is not very optimistic.

  41. Harari is an amazing mind, and his books have provided me a wider horizon to look at History and its inner workings in politics, economy and culture. He has very good references backing most of his explanations and providing premisses to bold arguments on biology and life. But I have seen frequently that we haven't adventured or progressed on our understanding of Consciousness and its origins, so I wonder … has he read Information Integration Theory of Consciousness? What does he think of it?

    The way I see this theory allied with the evolutionary perspective is that consciousness doesn't need a role in natural selection, as it doesn't present a cost to the individuals of a species, it's not something that you can turn on or off with your genes, it's an emergent phenomena resulting from the level of integration of the information being processed, in the case of animals by their brains. With this perspective in mind, we didn't got here because of consciousness or despite having it, it was a mere byproduct of our brain information's flow, other animals also have it, althought differently.

    Also, considering our History, as presented in his books, and giving as a fact that there is no free will and things are either random or deterministic, it's possible then to conclude that consciousness had no role whatsoever in our early History and only with the advent of Humanism and the political and economical organizations based on humans experiences (which are on themselves unconscious algorithms) that it was put into the equation, but not as an individual trait, but as a variable to an external algorithm.

    Alternatively, it's possible also to see Sapiens as the first to cross a threshold Phi (measure of information integration according to the theory) that opened way for "being conscious of its own counsciousness" and as such to the cognitive revolution.

  42. I have just been turned on to Harari in the last six months––all of this is really exciting. I like the fact that Harari talks about being emotionally resilient; that consciousness and intelligence are not the same; and. that we have to do more work on the mind. The brain and body can be made immortal but what kind of a mind will that being have and will the mind be gone.

  43. There are plenty of societies in which work and its fruits have been decoupled.I guess he meant modern ones, thus not considering societies based on slave work.

  44. As others have said, he is brilliant. Yet, in my opinion, he is wrong in regard to consciousness. He buys into the hypothesis that consciousness does not derive from brain. Perhaps he should have sat with me when treating people for brain death. I can guarantee you that their consciousness went away also.

    Humans have long preferred the hypothesis of a spirit or soul that exists beyond our physical selves. Okay, I get the attraction. However, that doesn't make it so. If we hypothesize that consciousness derives from something other than brain (as one member of the audience clearly believed) then there must be some form of process ("mechanics") whereby that consciousness operates. Even more, there must be some way for that consciousness to interact with the physical brain so that real-world effects (such as thought) may derive from that external consciousness. The problem is, there is no evidence for either of these things – an external mechanics, nor a bridge between those hypothesized mechanics and the real brain.

    Here's an alternative. Consciousness is really not all that difficult. Nervous systems developed in evolution as ways to orchestrate organism response to environmental circumstance. As organisms became more physiologically complex a method for orchestrating the whole organism to consistent response was required. We now call those emotions – unifying physiological states aimed at response to varied environmental circumstances. Early versions were fear and aggression (later "fight or flight" via Cannon and Selye). Then, organisms needed to move beyond stimulus-response to "possible stimulus – possible responses". This founded imagination, creative responses and later creativity in its own right. Then, all of this became personalized via another set of neurons devoted to evolving socialization and the tension between self-other dilemmas. Eventually this set of neurons has come to be the basis of what we now call "consciousness", issues of "self", and the realms of imagination/creativity. It is not all that difficult; and, it is all explainable neuronally. There is proof for a brain and for loss of behavior when the brain is dead. There is no proof for the imagined extensions (rather, there are only libraries full of evidence that we do create fictions).

    Cheers

  45. The Toyota Altruist vs. The Toyota Egoist! 😂😂😂😂😂
    Suggesting a car company would build two options into its cars for the owner to have the car's AI kill others to save themselves vs the opposite is freaking awesome!
    I love this guy now! That ending was epic!

  46. Maybe the solution (if anyone is looking for one) is to live in the present and forget the anxiety about the future? Teach that to children.

    Maybe the oceans will rise by the end of 30 years and cause more problems by wiping out a portion of the population! And we will have jobs to repair our earth!

    Another solution would be giving up consumer mindset and inculcate a producer mindset- in other words get back to farming your own food. Because everything we do is for food.

    But the real question is, are we humans capable of giving up tech and get back to being producers (earth will surely appreciate if we go backward and become early man again)

  47. Why are no one mentioning communism? All the problems in this debate will inherently lead to communism.
    When all jobs or most jobs will be taken over by automatization and AI, UBI won't be the answer, as it will leave an expendable class, as he mentions. The rich will only get richer from this consumer/UBI class, while the UBI class will remain at their level, and will be dependant on corporate taxes to keep them alive.

    The only thing that can solve this is by taking over the means of production, and use it for the betterment of humanity as a whole. UBI is already basically a mild form of communism, where everyone is being given certain products to stay alive.

    Check out what a resource-based economy is, and how its obviously the future for humanity.

  48. If consciousness is the management unit that balances between the 15 primal feelings. Simple animals manage with balancing two feelings at once (fear/want_that).

  49. Not only that we do not have much time to explore new socio-political models, but also that we are a malignant (not a benign) civilization. If our history is anything to by, we will end up with models of the worst kind that will server only the Trumps, Putins, Clintons, Bushes of the world and leave out the vast billions out of the equation.

    I think, it is more important to be worried about the alpha-male genes in us than the AI, which may well turn out to be more benign than us. After all, AI will be rational and logical (like Leela that is a super chess player) and, hence, knows that harming another AI cannot be a logical goal or outcome. We may see Data's of the world (from Gene Roddenberry's Star Trek) create a world more benign than we humans are even capable of – unless the Chomsky's of the world can take over governance.

  50. Human civilization is at a cusp of history where we can decide to build a benigh and magnificent civilization OR decide to end up a DOOMED one.

    With AIs doing all the work, we can either liberate humans from the drudgery of monotonous work and place every human in positions of fundamental entitlements to health, education and political rights. OR, go down the lane of complete DOOM where we see the emergence of a 21st century version of slavery, which is kept in place by powerful AIs and CCTVs for monitoring.

    I suspect, our civilization's malignant tendencies is likely take us down various versions of the DOOMED future. Biological and social evolution has given us two of worst toxic combinations – alpha genes that seeks power for the sake of power and irrational minds that can scheme the worst schemes of destruction (like the Hitlers, the Stalins, the Bushes, the Reagans, the Blairs, the Putins, et. al.) and that continues to believe in the non-existent.

    Yes the political and religious human is a toxic combination that social and biological evolutions have gifted us with. Such a human uses the power of intelligence to seek domination and also submit to theistic behavior (including brown-nosing bosses) for ulterior motives.

  51. Our politics and ethics have been outpaced by technological advancements. Hence, we continue to manage ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads in the same way we used to when we were stone and spear throwing tribes!

  52. Our archaic religious morality continues to preach nonsense that we know are no longer valid and irrelevant for the 21st century civilization. But we are mired in those millennia old nonsense.

  53. Hence, our archaic morality and ethics goads us into misusing and abusing the technological prowess that is now at our finger tips.

    HOW I WISH THE NOAM CHOMSKY'S, THE ROBERT OWEN'S, THE HAMDI ULUKAYA'S (OF CHOBANI YOGURT FAME), THE GENE RODDENBERRY'S, THE EDWIN HUBBLES', THE CARL SAGAN'S, THE NELSON MANDELA'S OF THE WORLD COULD HELP US TRANSITION INTO BENIGNITY!

  54. If you limit the consumer you loose the system – AI will remove 80% of jobs even the elite will loose their value and status – the remaining 20 % will not last long . TOTAL CAL APSE !

  55. Possibly consciousness is the consequence of layers of sensations and perceptions and the ability of the brain to function as a database that can provide multiple levels of experiences through association. Artificial intelligence may eventually reach this level of forming a facsimile of human consciousness. Super intelligence is likely to be the result of the speed and power of artificial intelligence. Think about how much progress or advancement will be forthcoming over the next couple of decades or further into the future. Mankind will need to integrate with this technology to remain on a communicative level of where artificial intelligence is heading.

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