Etruscans: Italian Civilization Before Ancient Rome

Etruscans: Italian Civilization Before Ancient Rome

It’s hard to imagine Italy as anything other
than the heart of the Latin world, the origin point of Roman civilization, which has so
greatly influenced the society we live in today. However, it was not always this way.
Stretching from the Po Valley to the Tiber River, the Etruscan civilization thrived for
centuries before the founding of Rome, boasting a society that rivaled the sophistication
of classical Greece, the trading acumen of Phoenicia, and the wealth of Egypt. In this
video, we will tell the story of Italy’s most ancient people, and explore the monumental
cultural impact they had on the young Roman Republic, and through them, the world. Shoutout to Blinkist for sponsoring this video!
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want the full membership! In their early history, the Romans referred
to the strange and foreign peoples to their north as “Etrusci”, and it is from this
root that the modern region of Tuscany gained its name. However, the peoples in question
called themselves the Rasenna. At their peak, which lasted from around 750 – 400 BCE, they
were an incredibly prosperous society, and their cities lit up the Italian heartland.
Pisa, Bologna, Capua, and many other modern population centers were originally founded
by the Etruscans. They were also a sea-going people, forging
trade networks all over the Mediterranean that brought copious wealth into their lands.
Through their skilled warriors, they would establish themselves as the premier power
in the Italian peninsula for centuries, and although they would eventually be conquered
and assimilated into Rome, the Empire we all know would be nigh unrecognizable if not for
the contributions that the Etruscans made to its society.
Where the Etruscans originally came from is a matter of scholarly debate. The Ancient
historian Herodotus claimed they were migrants from Anatolia, while others asserted they
were one of the mysterious Sea Peoples that caused the Bronze Age Collapse. It is through
language that we gain a clearer window into the Etruscan’s past. For most of their history,
their civilization was surrounded by Celtic Gauls to the north, Greeks to the south, and
Italic tribes to their east, the latter of whom would eventually spawn the Latins of
Rome. Diverse as they were, these three peoples
had one thing in common: they spoke Indo-European languages. Today, this massive language family
covers most of the globe, but in the early Iron age, it would have been a relatively
new arrival in Europe, with the Greeks, Italics, and Celts all being descended from a common
ancestor that likely migrated out of the Caucasian mountains between the 3rd to 1st millennium
BC. The Etruscan language, however, is not Indo-European, making it an anomaly compared
to its neighbours. From this, we can discern that the Etruscans themselves were probably
indigenous, belonging to an ancient bloodline that inhabited Europe long before the great
migration, potentially making them Italy’s earliest known people.
Whatever their origin may be, we can trace the Etruscan’s archaeological presence in
Italy as far back as 1200 BC, around the same time the Trojan War supposedly took place.
Little is known about Etruscan society this far back in time. But we can be fairly certain
that with weapons forged from bronze, they came to dominate central-western Italy. They
built their villages on naturally defensible plateaus, constructing houses of thatch and
mud while subsisting off farming, herding, and forestry. They cremated their dead in
primitive burial sites, and placed their ashes in Biconic Urns. 1,000 BC saw the first Italic
peoples enter into the peninsula, but the forebears of the Romans had centuries before
their time in the sun would come, and the proto-Etruscans retained their territorial
and cultural integrity in the face of this migration.
By the 9th century, the Etruscans entered what is known as the Villanovan phase of their
history. Ancient Tuscany was abundant in natural resources, and the Etruscans grew prosperous
mining the abundant copper and iron deposits in their lands. Small hill-villages began
coalescing into larger towns, and population centers like Veii, Tarquinia and Vulci became
regional powers. Their society became noticeably more complex, as observed through their architecture,
which now featured ornately decorated homes baring geometric and animalistic motifs. Villanovan
Etruscans interred their dead in dedicated necropolises, the richest of which were home
to graves baring ritualistically elaborate weapons, shields, and armour made of bronze
and iron. These graves also featured luxury goods manufactured in Phoenicia and Greece,
indicating that it was around this time that the Etruscans took to the seas, establishing
trade networks with the Near East. Etruscan merchants brought back more than
just physical treasures from their new trading partners. The period of history between 750-500BC
saw them heavily influenced by Eastern, predominantly Greek, cultures. Etruscan pottery, sculpture,
and art took on a distinctly eastern style, while the Etruscan elites adapted courtly
Rituals that emphasized pomp and ceremony, especially rites involving wine, a drink they
adored. Most importantly, they adopted for the Western Greek Alphabet as their writing
system, through which we retain the only documentation of their mysterious language today.
This era also presided over rapid urbanization of Etruscan society, as their towns bloomed
into cities, complete with paved roads and aqueducts built amongst hallowed tombs, austere
temples, and luxury villas inspired by Hellenic design. As their tribal warriors evolved into
professional armies, the Etruscans expanded their territory, coming to dominate their
southern Latin neighbours, including a certain little backwater town called Rome.
Politically, the Etruscans were always a divided people. Much like the Ancient Greeks, the
city-state was the main political unit in Etruria, with a single city forming a nucleus
of control over its surrounding rural territory. These cities were often in fierce competition
with one another, and war between them was not uncommon. With that said, a loose alliance
was formed around 600BC that consisted of the twelve most powerful city-states, called
the “League of Twelve Peoples”. While this enabled the Etruscans to regulate each
other’s economic and religious interests, each city remained largely independent in
practice. Originally, the city-states were ruled by
Kings, but like Athens before them, it seems that the Etruscans overthrew their monarchs
between the 5th and 4th centuries BC and established a form of oligarchic republican government,
although this transition was not a uniform across all their cities.
Etruscan religion and mythology were rich and multi-layered. Prior to 600 BC, they worshipped
formless Gods thematically centered around the moon and the sun. As their cultural contact
with the Greeks grew deeper, their deities began to more closely resemble the Olympian
Pantheon. The Greeks saw Etruscan Gods merely as adaptations of their own, divine plagiarism
the Romans would also later be guilty of. While the Etruscan religion greatly resembled
the Greeks’, and to a lesser extent, the Phoenicians, fundamentally it was unique.
Their chief God was Tinia, ruler of the sky. At surface level, he appeared to mirror Zeus,
but the two were not entirely parallel. Zeus, like most of the Greek Gods, often acted impulsively
and violently. Tinia, on the other hand, could not even throw a lightning bolt without permission
from a mysterious collective of deities known as the “Secret Gods of Favour”. Uni, the
goddess of fertility and childbirth, was often compared to Hera. But while Hera was the jealous
and vengeful wife to a pathologically adulterous husband, Tinia and Uni appeared to have a
functional, loving marriage. Menrva was the third most important deity
and was roughly equivalent to Athena. It was from Menrva that the Romans would get the
name for their own Goddess of Wisdom – Minerva. Unlike her Greek and Roman counterparts, the
Etruscan Menrva was not a virgin, and even had an intimate relationship with the Etruscan
version of Heracles. Of course, there were many other Gods, some born of the Etruscan’s
indigenous past, and some cut from Greco-Roman cloth. In general, Etruscan Gods were more
restrained, peaceful, and all-around functional when compared to their Greek counterparts.
In most societies, religion is often tied to public spectacle, and in this, the Etruscans
were no different. Sporting events, in particular, were incredibly popular, with boxing, wrestling
and chariot racing never failing to draw a crowd. Once a year, citizens of the Twelve
Cities would gather at Fanum Voltumnae, the most sacred sanctuary in Etruria, and broad
parallel to what Mount Olympus was to the Greeks. There, they would revel in public
games intertwined seamlessly with intricate religious rituals.
If an ancient Greek or Roman happened to attend the games at Fanum Voltumnae, they may have
been surprised to find women present in the audience. Indeed, Etruscan women enjoyed a
great deal of freedom and autonomy compared to their Greco-Roman counterparts, and later
Roman authors often condemned them as frivolous, spoiled, and depraved when compared to Latin
women. The Wives and Daughters of Etruria had the
freedom to own, inherit and transfer property as they saw fit. During ceremonial banquets,
they feasted alongside men as equals. For them, there was no shame in drinking, in contrast
to Greek women, who were generally expected to forego alcohol. Etruscan women were also
prominent leaders in religious life, serving as Oracles and Priestesses who held direct
sway over their people’s political decisions through their powers of divination. While
the Greeks also had a prominent female Sybil [Sibyl, “prophet”] in Delphi, she required
male priests to interpret her will, while Etruscan priestesses delivered their own prophecies.
The Etruscan cities maintained a strong martial culture, both to settle disputes among themselves,
and to expand their frontiers against their Gallic and Italic neighbours. Etrurian warfare
was originally small-scale in nature. In the Villanovan era, warriors formed the aristocratic
elite of society. They armoured themselves with bronze helmets and cuirasses, and went
into battle wielding iron spears, javelins, stabbing swords, and shields. In general,
the rich fought on horseback or on a chariot, while the lower classes fought on foot.
Conflicts usually took the form of minor skirmishes between neighbouring tribes, and featured
little in the way of tactics. The two armies would meet and exchange a hail of javelins,
at which point both sides would charge one another and engage in a chaotic melee. Individual
heroism was valued over unit cohesion, and it was not uncommon for warriors to seek one
on one combat during the heat of battle. As Etruscan society evolved, so did its military.
As a byproduct of trading with the Greeks, the Etruscans slowly adopted a distinctly
Hellenic style of arms, armour, and warfare. The warrior-caste still comprised the social
elite, but by the 6th century BC, it had evolved to resemble a Greek Hoplite in arms and armour.
More disciplined than their Villanovan ancestors, the Etruscan Hoplites fought primarily in
a phalanx, protected on the wings by cavalry, a universally effective formation that even
the Romans used before the adoption of the Maniple.
Etruscan phalanxes were often supplemented by auxiliaries from their society’s lower
classes, who were more lightly armoured than their aristocratic counterparts, often wielding
nothing more than stones and slings. These armies were effective, so much so that with
them, the Etruscans expanded their power over the lion’s share of Italy. However, like
with all civilizations, their prosperity would not last forever, and a decline was soon to
come. To anyone with a passing knowledge of Ancient
History, the fall of Etruria to the Romans seems an inevitability, but to the ancients,
the result was hardly set in stone. Rome itself was founded in 753BC, and for centuries the
urbanized Etruscans considered it a rural backwater barely worth mentioning. This changed
in 616BC, when an Etruscan aristocrat from Tarquinia ascended as King of Rome.
Known to his people as Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, he introduced his city to a working sewage
system, led Rome in its subjugation of the other tribes of Latium, and built the circus
maximus, importing athletes and chariot racers from Etruria to introduce the Romans to the
joy of public sporting. Priscus’s dynasty would last two more generations; in 509 BC,
his Grandson Tarquinius Superbus, infamous for his wanton tyranny, was overthrown and
exiled forever, ending the Roman Kingdom and giving rise to the Roman Republic.
This marked a turning point in Italian history, as the Romans began to slowly expand, while
the Etruscans slowly declined. In 396BC, after a century of frontier warfare, the Dictator
Marcus Furius Camillus conquered, sacked and completely depopulated the city of Veii. The
other Etruscan cities looked upon this destruction with apathy; to many of them Veii was a bitter
rival they were glad to see gone, and besides, it was one thing for Rome to take a city directly
on its border, but the upstart Latins could never extend further north into the Etrurian
heartland. Naturally, this was a fatal judgment. Hampered by their inability to properly unite
against a common enemy, the Etruscans city-states were simply unable to provide a consistent
answer to the dynamic Roman military. Over the next few centuries, their territory fell
chunk-by-chunk into Roman hands. One final pushback was made in 298BC, when
the Etruscans finally put up a united front against the Romans, allying with a confederation
of Gauls and Samnites in the Third Samnite War. Nevertheless they were defeated, and
this ended any hope of Etruria retaining its independence. Its last city, Volsinii, fell
to Rome in 264BC, the same year that the Republic would go to war with Carthage for the first
time. Even after their conquest, the Etruscans did
not disappear overnight. Their people, culture, and language survived for another three hundred
years under Roman rule. However, following the Social War of 90BC, Etruscan cities within
the republic gained full Roman citizenship, and this expedited their assimilation into
Latin society, and by around 30AD, the Etruscan language had gone extinct, ending a culture
that had endured for nearly 1,500 years. Nevertheless, the legacy these ancient peoples
left upon the Roman Empire was nothing short of extraordinary. The Romans based their Latin
alphabet upon Greek letters, but they received those letters through the Etruscans. Core
pillars of Roman infrastructure, such as the aqueduct and the paved road were cultural
borrowings taken from well-established Etruscan technology. Icons of Roman authority, such
as the Toga, the Fasces, and the custom of the military triumph were all originally Etruscan.
The Romans adopted much of Etruscan military technology, such as the use of brass trumpets
to relay orders in battle. Even the iconic Pilum and Scutum evolved from Etruscan designs.
By and large, the Romans owed much of their skill in metalworking to the master artisans
of Etruria. Finally, the Roman love for public sports and spectacle was rooted in Etruscan
culture. Some sources even claim that the institution of Gladiatorial Combat evolved
out of an Etruscan sacrificial rite. One must imagine Emperor Justinian, watching his beloved
Greens turn a corner in front of an electric crowd of 40,000 people in the Constantinople
hippodrome, and wonder if he knew that he owed this spectacle to a forgotten people,
gone 600 years before his birth. Indeed, it is easy to ascribe the value of
the Etruscans solely upon the cultural legacy they left upon an Empire that, in turn, has
left such a profound legacy on our society today. However, these mysterious peoples of
a bygone Italy are more than a stepping stone of Roman History. Their society stands on
its own as one of the strongest, wealthiest and most sophisticated of antiquity, and a
reminder of the fascinating worlds one can find by digging deep into the mysterious mists
of humanity’s forgotten past. We always have more stories to tell, so make
sure you are subscribed to our channel and pressed the bell button. We would like to
express our gratitude to our Patreon supporters and channel members, who make the creation
of our videos possible. Now, you can also support us by buying our merchandise via the
link in the description. This is the Kings and Generals channel, and we will catch you
on the next one.

Author: Kennedi Daugherty

100 thoughts on “Etruscans: Italian Civilization Before Ancient Rome

  1. Etruscans were African ….Europeans are from bedrock stop trying to hide history and deleting my comments the Moors brought civilization to Europe……☻🔺☥

  2. Universe Tarot 2018 The 3 Suits The Stars Mysterium suit: The Morningstar: The Tragic King: The Shaman:The Mercenary: The Priest: The Doctor: The Princess: Baldr: Eurydice: King Rat: Creeper The Mouse: Miss Rat: The Palomino: The Boa Constrictor The Moon Inferis Suit: The Computer: The Rooster: The young woman: King David's daughter: Archangel Michael: Odin: Baal: The Man of Faith: The Navy Seal: The Captain: The Guide: Ekajati: Mahigan  the Fierce Dog: Yemoja wife of Pires The Sun Coelum suit: Helios: The Woman on the Hill: The Cosmic Wheel: Home: Last Cup of Sorrow:Etz haChayim: The Olive Branch: Adam: Jabal al zaytun al tur: The Golden Boy: The Assassin: The Liberators: The Shepherd: Santa Maria

  3. Illyrians,Tracians,Dacians,Macedonians,Epirus had the same sistem, Greek alphabets too, even womans had the same rights I think Etruscians had something to do with those civilazations.

  4. Etruscan DNA alive today in Tuscany, Italy.

    Romans – Italians – Sicilians
    Each separate identities.

    Etruscans were the genius engineers of the Aquaducts and truly the ones thought to be the inventors of Concrete.

    Romans were by their own labeling Barbarians.

    They took their Roman architecture, art, and style, from the Greeks and Etruscians.

    They were the origin of their Narcissistic ways and Sadistic enjoyments.

  5. Good video but im a little shocked that the migration of Gauls in to Northern Italy and its pressure on the Leagues was not mentioned. it very easily explains why they could not unite effectively when the city states of north, east and south Etruria had such different needs and priorities.

  6. so in orther words the existence of indo-european languages in Europe is evidence of a possible history of invading conquerors into Europe who imposed their language

  7. I kinda think the Etruscans are the extensions of Ancient Turks, if not may be somehow connected through a sprachbund effect. Whatcha people think?

  8. Interesting story; where is the evidence for all the speculation. Cartoon characters show no history except the story you are telling. Need some data.

  9. The etruscans were one of that twelve troian tribe which had to leave Troy after troyan war. The jullians lead by Eneas went to south and when they met egyptieans had to choose Italy. Etruscan tribe went to north toward the same Peninsula, in fact they were relatives, the Mollos tribe, lead by Andromaca, went to north and settled nearby the sanctuary of Achileia, today Chilia, half in Ukraine, half in Romania, and became the ancestors of macedonians. King Alexander the Great had been visited his ancestors, rebuilding from ruins Achileia. The language of all this people is even today almost identical. The others went another directions. If the mace-went in north, mice- went to Pelopones, and that massive migration at that time explains the linguistic similarity. When the hellas tribes, today known as greek came in Pelopones, they pushed over the sea the indigenous, toward South Europe, which don't speak greek but originary latin of Troy still speaking in south Europe, not as a result of romanisation which didn't exist, but a result of their common origin. In 1453 fell the last teritory of East Roman Empire, not Byzantine empire, which didn't exist, being a nineteen century promoted from West Europe. Turks named the same teritory Rumelia till 1878. Russians are obstinate to make the third Rome at Constantinople, not at all the Byzant, or Constantinople.

  10. So it's finally BCE now eh. Seems like K&G finally joined the CE/BCE bandwagon even tho the term itself is technically incorrect in context. Remember K&G, CE and BCE are only for Scientific, not historical contexts. Historical contexts are AD and BC.

  11. Скоро па истина проблематична је хронологија . RASENNA или РАСИ и њихово писмо може се везати само за Винчанско писмо то јест за Србицу – ћирилицу зато што само на Србском језику добијају смисао и значење као и сви топоними у Расени.

  12. I found how interesting is that the "official" history ignores the slavic group of nations and their roots.
    The old Veneti, living on most of the European theritory gave the cultural and language foundations to what we now say "slavic".

    The old etruscan language can be translated and understood thru the slovene language (Slovenija). Which is the oldest language still spoken in Europe today. And it is alive – I mean, words have their meaning and reasonable root. The oldest wheel, needle and playable instrument were found on the theritory of Slovenija.
    But yes, Italians (and others, also Slovenian "histoians") don't even want to hare about it.
    Osti jarej!

  13. There is a theory that Raseni are Raseni or Rasi (we find them in 'Old Ras' in South western Serbia and in far north of Europe too) and they gave Russians name and genetics. They lived in majority of Central Eastern and Southern Europe and are far reaching all away to India and China. The name keep repeating itself along with heavy carved tradition of essential values as, for instance – integrity. That's why Romans as robbers and killers vere able to push them to non existence over the millenia. Creating a false history helped a lot.

  14. It is interesting how they called themselves "Raseni" witch is also old name for Serbs, capital city Ras in medieval. Also when will you cover Vincha civilization I think this two are very connected… Vincha letters is same as Raseni or Etruscan witch is oldest in European civilization

  15. Etruscans were Slavic. Their language is proto-slavic. Western scholars never used a Slavic key to try decipher the language, because this truth is too inconvenient, and would blow up the lies the phoney phonetics Phoenicians worked so hard to establish for centuries. However, it has been deciphered quite easily by Slavic scholars. You will not hear about this in western academia. Their alphabet is identical to the Vincha or Danube Valley script found in the Balkans (real name – the HELM, or HUM in native language,) which dates back to 5500 BC. Etruscan = et-RUS-can. RAS-anni. Same as Thracian – th-RAS-ian in the Balkans. The root is RAS. There is still an area of Serbia called RAS-ka today, and the people from there are still called RAS-ani. 

    Ancient Greek was created by the Phoenicians as an "official language," and served up through Phoenician city states. This is a well established fact. It is the reason why the Greeks called them "phoenician," even though they were actually Canaanites. 

    Slavic languages are most similar to Sanskrit. Old Slavic, Celtic, Gaellic, Sanskrit, etc. are "Indo-European" languages, belonging to the Aryan civilisation.

    Phoney phoenician phoenetics languages are Ancient Greek, Latin, and all their derivates. They were created by inverting, rotating, mirroring the letters, reversing syllables, removing the resonant, rolling R, and replacing it with a gargling, or otherwise deformed R, etc. of the Aryan language. Once upon a time our ancestors spoke the same language and shared the same faith… until the invasion, subversion, and infiltration of the Canaanites – who have gone undercover after the Punic Wars, and still run this world through secret societies and secret services to this day.

  16. Basks, Etrucians, Pelsags in balkans and greece, Pikts, anatolian hattians had aggulative languages. Early europians arent indo arabic.

  17. Its not Rasena. Correct pronounce is Rashani. South Serbian tribe, held onto existence till Turks did not invade. Today it exists as region in central Serbia called Rashka.

  18. i dont really get how it is seen as normal among indo-european peoples to relegate women, while it is supposedly shocking as an exception for certain indo-european cultures to treat women as any human being

  19. I love me some Kings and Generals, but there is a lot wrong with this episode.
    Firstly, the claim that Etruscan and Roman cultures are distinct is highly spurious. Rome was founded by Etruscans, it's Kings were Etruscans, it's republic was Etruscan, its military heritage was Etruscan and so were its religious institutions and rituals. Geographically, it was surrounded by Etruscan cities and regions. The claim that Rome was ethnically "latin", while other Etruscan people were ethnically distinct, is just weird. These arbitrary distinctions arose much later, during the Roman empire.
    Linguistically, we ought to be incredibly careful about making any sort of claim regarding the Etruscan language. It is entirely wrong to suggest that ethnic groups follow language groups, as is claimed here with regard to Proto indo european (PIE). Languages can be, and are, adopted by anyone at all. They do not follow genetic lines. That is how they spread so fast, and so far. PIE spread primarily due to it containing huge amounts of equine terminology. Furthermore, the fellow who promoted the weird and whacky theory of Etruscan being non PIE was a Nazi party member named Rix. He had many creative ideas, all based on fanciful ideas of eugenics. The total amount of actual language data he was aware of was extremely minimal. His genetic knowledge and data was zero.
    In short, the distinction between Roman culture and Etruscan culture is entirely arbitrary, and largely misleading. The histories of Rome, written by Romans, make this abundantly clear.
    There was never an "Etruscan Empire", except for Rome. There never was Rome without Etruscan foundation. The two are the same culture, at different times.
    Rome never "conquered" Etruscan culture. Yes, Romans sometimes attacked cities in the region. Yet Etruscan cities did that to each other. Curiously, and revealingly, however, the vast majority of Etruscan cities came under Roman rule voluntarily, in response to threats from outside powers.
    Lastly, with reference to the gods, both Greek and Etruscan gods are derived from the Sumerian Pantheon. Zeus is Enlil, Athena is Inanna. And so on.
    Beware reading too much into… "popular" theory of all the things into theories of Etruscan culture. Most were published in the early to mid 20th century, by people whose ideas ranged from the occult, to eugenic fascism. Modern history, and especially linguistic anthropology, has mercifully moved on from that weird time.

  20. I just discovered this channel and absolutely love it. instantly subscribed! the animations are so well-done and vibrant, the narration is great and I love that it's thorough without being a massive infodump. it's easy to actually learn from these videos and retain the important bits. thank you!

  21. Etruscan language was linguisctic language like mongolic,turkic,korean,japanese…I dont understand that why etruscans was in Italia

  22. History- Thousands of years of stories, mystery, amazing feats of survival and determination, the roots of who we are.
    Canadian history class- Years upon years of learning about the Huston's Bay company.

  23. The official history is full of lies and fabrication. If you look deeper you will see that the Etruscans who caled themselves Raseni is Serbs. Serbia was called Raska in the old century and the capital town called Ras. The Etruscans letter ( Etruscans is modern name for Rasens) that is one of the few that has not been deciphered in the world and has been deciphered by a Serbian priest just by looking at those stones with letters because it is very similar to today's letter to Cyrillic or Serbian and easy to read. the letter was written from left to right and without punctuation marks and merged. investigate.

  24. Hmm… I think you should have done a time-range for the arrival of italic speakers; there's a lot of controversy over when and by which route they arrived.

  25. 1:25 … That rock painting is in Sikhu, Thailand at the temple which has two big pink elephant statues… Been there many times.

  26. It's interesting how much more egalitarian the Etruscans were compared to the Romans and Greeks. I guess it's because they seem to have a different origin than the Indo-European ones which language reconstructions have shown to be very patriarchal.

  27. do not like your computer graphics documentary. COMPUTER GRAPHICS IS KILLING YOUR HISTORY NARRATION. ADULTS ARE NOT CHILDREN

  28. Why is it that every time we talk about a civilization that fell, their fall also coincided with women's rights? Are we starting to see a pattern here? Maybe women shouldnt have rights?

  29. HMMMMMM….
    All successfull civilizations keep women at bay… all deceased civilizations keep women loose…
    [Thinking emoji]

  30. their languages is like sumerian and altai languages. ( agglutinative)
    i think they are relatives with the sumerians and i think etruscans aren't european

  31. If Etruscan is not an Indo-European language then what is it? If unique or not part of another language group like Basque the tell us…please. Based on their are they certainly appear related to the Greeks and Romans; their politics were similar as was their architecture. Seems like their gods were a bit more stable and peaceful as if they could have emerged during the Neolithic period during which there isn’t much indication of large scale warfare. Their alphabet appears to be an adaptation of Phoenician as I believe was Dorian Greek and Latin.

  32. The Etruscan changed their monarchy into a republic. The Estruscan Gods were moral and discipline Gods. A large part of Roman culture come from Etrusca. I think the Etruscan real name Rasenna connect them to Ancient Egypt.

  33. The grim reaper is based on the Etruscan god of death. So when Mexicans pray to “La Santísima Muerte” the image is the same as the Etruscan god of death.

  34. Why do you use code words like indigenous roots as opposed to just admitting their relationship with the nilo-saharan communities? Even in college we learn that their religion and how they related to each other is a direct nilo-saharan custom. its Like everyone is afraid to say the word Africa… It's ridiculous

  35. Congratulations on hitting over a million subs. You are now the raining Kings of the YouTube History Empire. Toppling every other history channel, just like the Romans toppled any kingdom who stood in their path to domination.

    But seriously, It's rare for a history channel to make those kinds of numbers, and you guys are nailing it. Well deserved considering all the professional & hard work, research, animations, editing and narration you all put into every video.

    Once again, congrats on your well deserved conquest of the history side of YouTube. You are the Romans of YouTube channels.

  36. The really cool civilizations fell to the brutal, vengeful, efficiency of the kingdom of Rome. There is a lesson to be learned in it.

    "Betrayed by their inability to combine against a common foe . . ."

    Sage advice for today's folks desirous of and/or working toward a regime change.
    If you don't back a single candidate, you WILL LOSE. The candidates who won't work with their fellows in order to promote a single name are acting directly to ruin chances for victory.
    Wonder who's paying them to do that, against the best interests of their party? Fellow partisans? Saints?

    Anyone? Come on. It's not rocket science. The Romans became masters of it, using bribes and promises of citizenship to divide the Frankish and Gallic tribes against one another.

    Herodotos tells you the truth of the Etruscan origins, why you make circles to deny them,and, on the process you describe their Hellenic origins by diverting saying that they were influenced from Hellenic culture ? Where in Greek literature you found about "Indoeuropean" people and language, when you describe the Greek language and the Greek customs? Don't you know that Rome is a Greek founded city? Don't you read Greek authors who say so? What is in your complex mind to refrain from the truth when you have the sources? Don't Aineias came from Troy, who is a Greek from Arkadia? Do not Etruscans came from Ionia with their language and culture ? Whenever modern world needs information about the ancient world you turn to the Hellenes and their brothers the Romans. Stick to them you have become ridiculous in you controversial, and fake narrations.

  38. Let me get this straight
    The land was called
    But you call the People
    Hahahaha 😂😂😂
    Seems somebody somewhere
    Once made a little slip a mistake maybe 😋🐒
    Pls. Stop being stupid and call them as they are rightfully and correctly need To be called
    Ps. And im not refering To the makers of this great video but rather To the original ignoramuses that made the grave error..

  39. Long story made short. So basically, the Etruscans were just Meditarrean Greekish and Mediterranean tribes and clans and other Island Greek like people or
    outskirt Greekish people (Phonecians and Anatolians) who settled in Italy and had a mish mash but advanced art and culture then later became more Greek like (not surprising considering their origins) and didn't really get conquered but assimilated with the city state of Rome and then emerged the Roman Republic and Empire. No mystery here. Just nearby cultural migration and assimilations. Etruscans weren't different but just a Proto-Rome. As it is, the very first foundations of Rome was the kingdom of Rome, ruled by an Etruscan dynasty (that aristocrat who ascended to rule the backwater that Rome was) and then only to have that dynasty overthrown and the city state of Rome conquer the other nearby city states. Its Proto Rome.

  40. Thank you guys. Really interesting topic, an obscure civilization that is part of the civilization that dominated most of Europe and is the basis of the current western society. Awesome!

  41. I'm reading The Etruscan, and I'd been wondering for days who were they, but always forgot to Google it. I'm glad that YT now has mind-reading capabilities :D.

  42. See I wish people instead of leaving all of these cultures behind and letting history do its work, maybe we should revive cultures, languages and many things along with that. I m not saying live like those people, but try to assimilate fallen cultures we were part of into our modern life. Simply trying to undo works of dictators and tyrants and adding more complexity to our society.

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